Psychological Self-Help

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Chapter 6: Happiness, Depression and Self-Concept
   Overview
       History and Gender Factors in Depression
       The Signs of Depression
   Happiness
       What is meant by happiness?
       How do we become happy?
       The Interaction of Happiness and Depression
       Martin Seligman’s Thesis on Happiness
       Forces Affecting Happiness and Depression
       Seligman’s Suggestions for Increasing Happiness
       Which life circumstances change our happiness level and which don’t?
       More promising routes to happiness
   Theories about the Causes of Depression
       The result of losses
       Genetic-physiological-chemical
       Poor social skills = no fun
       Helplessness and hopelessness
       Exercise: How do you explain things?
       Negative views
       Irrational ideas
       Unreasonable thinking and faulty conclusions
       Self-critical withdrawal
       Anger turned inward
       Sooty Sarah: A fairy tale
       Guilt
       Unmet dependency
       Impossible goals or no goals
       Shame: feeling ashamed of yourself has to be depressing
       Lacking self-control causes depression
       Summary of the Causes of Depression and How to Use Them
   Sad Times in Our Lives
       Death
       Suicide
       Understanding Suicide
       Barriers to getting treatment
       Rate of suicide by special groups
       Predicting suicide is very complex and very difficult
       Possible warning signs
       Prevention and treatment
       Intensive individual psychotherapy
       Finding helpful and useful information
       Self-injury
       The selection of a method—injury or suicide?
       How do people stop hurting themselves?
       Loss of a relationship: breaking up; estranged from parent
       Loneliness
       Self-help methods for reducing loneliness:
       Loss of Status: Failure and Disappointment
       Low Self-Concept and Feelings of Inferiority
       Perfectionists and Worriers
       Guilt and Regret
       What to do about Destructive Guilt
       Shame
       Exercises for understanding and reducing shame
       Boredom, apathy, and tiredness or exhaustion
   Methods for Coping with Depression
       The Use of Anti-depressants
       Level I: Behavior (see chapter 11)
       Level II: Emotions (see chapter 12)
       Level III: Skills (see chapter 13)
       Level IV: Cognitive Methods (chapter 14)
       Level V: Unconscious factors (chapter 15)
       Conclusion: Final words of advice

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