Chapter 12: Methods for Changing Emotions 
Learning to Control Our Emotions
Emotional Reactions: Behavior, Feelings, Physiology
Are Feelings Good or Bad?
Feelings Usually Leak Out
Methods for Changing
16. Massage 
17. Drugs
21. Skills
23. Values
Understanding your emotions--behavior, feelings, physiology, and
thoughts--will help you plan ways to change them. Use the steps in
chapter 2. If an unwanted emotion is your main concern, read the
appropriate chapter (5 to 8) and then refer back to this chapter for
basic methods to change the emotional parts of the problem. 
The above index lists the emotion-control methods described
below. Read the first section, the general idea, for each method and
select 2 or 3 methods to try with your emotions. 
The nature of emotions
Our feelings or emotions are a major part of our inner lives. Our
emotions are sometimes rapid primitive reflexes independent of our
thoughts, but at other times, our feelings reflect our cognitive
assessment of our current situation. Our feelings involve both our
emotions and our urges to act certain ways. Thus, emotions determine
if we are happy or unhappy, if we want to approach something or run
away from it, if we are exuberant or frozen, etc. 
Emotions are frequently unrealistic and irrational, i.e.
unreasonable, unthinking automatic physiological reactions or based
on faulty ideas distorted by our past experiences, misperceptions,
exaggerated fears or hopes or needs. Examples: Reason usually
doesn't over-ride subjective experience, i.e. telling a person afraid of
spiders that this specific spider right here is completely harmless,
doesn't completely reduce his/her fear. The intensity of an emotion is
not so much determined by the current situation as it is by the
amount of actual or expected change (Frijda, 1988). Thus, a small
spider seen 15 feet away (a small change) is not as scary as a large
one suddenly only 6 inches away. Likewise, if economic conditions in
the 1990's changed radically and returned to 1935 standards, our
national feelings of crisis would be much greater than they were during
the middle of the Great Depression. Where the change is greatest, the
feelings are most intense. It was the wealthy and ambitious who
committed suicide in 1929, not the poor. The college graduate who
always wanted and expected to become a doctor is more crushed by
rejection letters from Medical School than the graduate who rather
expected the rejections. 
Since emotions seem to be designed by nature to help us
adapt --to solve problems--we tend to get "used to" positive
conditions (a loving, giving spouse) but our fears and hostilities
continue on and on upsetting and urging us to "do something." As
Frijda observes, the human mind was apparently not made for
happiness, but for survival. Happiness is possible, but it may take
intentional thought and effort; it is not always an automatic process.
But anger, grief, insecurity, and jealousy are automatic, sometimes
even unstoppable. 
The desire to remove serious emotional hurts from our life can
become so primary that our strong feelings over-ride reason, close
our minds to other viewpoints, and dominate our actions.
Suicide is a way to escape pain and hurts. Likewise, the enraged ex-
spouse can hardly think of anything else, certainly not any
explanations for the former spouse's wrongdoings. The badness of the
ex-spouse becomes an obsession, an unshakeable conviction which
will often last forever, regardless of other peoples' opinions. This
single-minded view is a characteristic of emotions: the fearful flyer can
not consider the high probability of his/her flight arriving safely; the
jealous person is absolutely certain the lover is interested in someone
else; the insecure spouse feels sure his/her partner doesn't really care
for him/her. Yet, there sometimes seems to be a consideration of
the probable consequences at some semi-conscious level because
the fearful passenger usually doesn't get off the plane and we don't
always immediately dump the "unfaithful" lover or "indifferent"
spouse. Indeed, many "healthy" people tend to distort their view of a
situation in such a way that their negative feelings and dangers are
minimized and/or their positive feelings are maximized. Fortunately,
under favorable conditions, reason can help us see other
possibilities, see the likely long-term consequences of an action, see
the implications of a code of ethics, etc. Reason (cognition) can modify
the impulsive actions of the more rigidly mechanistic emotions. 
One of Frijda's points is that emotions, as well as behavior and
reason, are lawful and understandable (but not logical). The more you
know about those laws, the better your chances of controlling your
unwanted emotions. 
Learning to control our emotions
We are probably always feeling emotions; they seem to impose
themselves on us; we ordinarily don't "will" to feel certain ways. The
range of emotions is extensive. We can feel terrible, as in horror,
suicidal depression, rage, and self-depreciation. Even in milder forms,
such as tension or boredom or irritation or subordination, emotions
may make us miserable. Yet, we can feel happy, proud, loving, or
fascinated, which makes life great. At this point in time, psychologists
know more about reducing unwanted feelings than about increasing
the desired emotions. In this chapter, we focus on methods for
controlling our four major emotions, primarily anxiety, depression,
anger, and passive-dependency. 
Chapters 5, 6, 7, and 8 explain how the major emotions are
learned and developed. Of course, many basic emotional reactions
may not be learned; they may be inborn physiological responses, like
pain, fear, crying, hunger, sensual and sexual pleasure, frustration,
pleasure, etc. These and other emotions, like ecstasy, sadness,
irritability, rebelliousness, fears, or sudden episodes of agoraphobia,
may be genetic, physiological, hormonal or drug-induced (Adler, 1985)
and responsive to medication (Sheehan, 1984). As we grow out of
early childhood, however, certain emotions become associated with
certain situations and events; that is a learning process. Many of these
associations are not rational. We fear situations that are not dangerous
(like meeting someone or speaking up in class). We get upset about
things that couldn't be avoided. We may briefly distrust the entire
opposite male or female sex after we have been dumped by one of
Some emotional reactions, like anger or dependency, also seem to
be operants (yield some payoff); other emotions seem classically
conditioned to certain situations, like anger in response to a defiant,
smart-mouthed teenager. Most often, both operant and classical
conditioning are involved in developing an emotion, e.g. the fear of
public speaking increases (1) as fear is experienced while speaking
(classical) and (2) as public speaking is avoided for fear of fear
(operant). Of course, telling ourselves how stupid we will look if we
forget what to say also increases our speech anxiety. 
Indeed, many emotional reactions seem to be largely generated by
our thought processes, rather than by operant or classical
conditioning. Lazarus (1984) contends that cognition is always
involved in our emotions because emotions reflect our cognitive
evaluation of how well things are going for us, namely, if our situation
is seen as getting better or worse. The question is: What thoughts
(meanings or inferences or expectations) arouse which emotions? For
many years, Ellis & Harper (1975) have been reminding us of the
2000-year-old idea that our intensely sad or hostile feelings are a
result of our own thinking, our irrational ideas. For example, we
assume that situations (failing an exam) and people (someone lied to
you) cause our emotions, but Ellis says most emotions result from our
insisting that the world and others should be unfolding differently.
And, like a child, we get upset--we "awfulize"--when things don't go
the way we want them to go: "It was a stupid exam!" and "It's terrible
that he/she lied to me!" Cognitive methods for reducing emotions
are described in chapter 14.
Still other emotions may arise from unconscious forces within us.
Suppose a part inside of us wants a very close relationship with one
parent. Our efforts to get attention from that parent, to be cute and
clever, to excel, to be attentive to that parent may arouse some
anxiety, but we are not aware of the source. We may even marry
someone similar to the admired parent without realizing it. Likewise,
suppose your boss unconsciously reminds you of a cruel older brother;
thus, the intensity of your fear and anger at the boss may surprise you
and others. 
In short, human feelings are complexly caused, i.e. the learned
aspects of emotions may be (1) operantly conditioned, (2) classically
conditioned, (3) socially learned, (4) a result of our thoughts, and (5)
a result of unconscious processes. This chapter deals mostly with (1)
and (2). For (3) see chapters 13 and 14, for (4) see chapter 14 and for
(5) see chapter 15. However, in reality these five learning processes
are often all mixed up together (along with reflexes, hormones,
genetic predispositions) in the development of an emotion. 
Understanding the way we acquired a certain complex emotional
reaction might help us figure out how to change the feeling. On the
other hand, knowing the etiology of each emotion may not be
necessary. It seems quite likely that several treatment methods will
work regardless of the causes. Example: suppose you feel inadequate.
Thus, you could take an "insight" approach (see chapter 15) in which
you explore your childhood and eventually say to yourself, "It is silly to
feel inadequate because my parents were critical and put me down;
I'm OK, I don't have to be superior and I don't have to continue feeling
inferior." Or you could challenge the irrational (unproven) idea that
you are inadequate and set about demonstrating that you are quite
capable; thus, reducing the self-doubts. Or you could counter-
condition or over-ride the anxiety you feel in threatening situations,
using desensitization or relaxation. All these methods might be
effective, regardless of the origin of the feelings of inadequacy. When
the self-help method you first selected doesn't work, however, then a
re-analysis of the causes of the problem might help you select a more
appropriate self-help method. 
Emotional behavior, feelings, physiological responses, and
Emotional reactions: Behavior, feelings, physiological responses,
and attributions
Emotions involve (a) behavior, (b) subjective feelings, and (c)
physiological responses. And, to make matters more complicated, each
of these three aspects is often only slightly correlated with the other
two, i.e. you may (subjectively) feel very tense but not show it overtly
(behaviorally) and not respond internally (physiologically). A person
can feel quite relaxed but have an upset stomach or low back pain and
appear to others as either very laid back or very nervous. All the
combinations are possible. 
Some clever experiments have shown that subjective feelings are
often a function of both (1) the level of physiological arousal and
(2) our interpretation of the causes of the arousal (Schachter &
Singer, 1962). The sequence is this: there is a physiological arousal
which we notice, then we look at the situation for a reason for this
internal reaction, and this cognitive process (attempting to understand
the situation) enables us to label or identify the emotion we are
feeling. Thus, in some experiments exactly the same arousal (from a
drug) has been interpreted as anger in some cases and as happiness
in others, depending on the social situation. Actual physiological
arousal may not even be necessary; if you believe your heart is
beating faster (but it isn't), that may be enough to cause you to
believe you are angry or afraid or sexually aroused, depending on the
circumstances (Valins, 1966). The emotional labels we put on our
feelings are partly a function of our interpretation of the situation.
More recent research suggests our past experience and our current life
situation (beyond the immediate circumstances) also play a role in
how we label our feelings. 
There are some interesting implications from all this. First, perhaps
we shouldn't be so certain about what we are feeling (especially
considering the closed-mindedness discussed above). We can't sense
physiological changes accurately. Moreover, the "feelings" I seem to
be having are more like guesses about why I am upset (if I am) based
on my past, my tendency to favor certain emotions, and on
circumstantial evidence. Secondly, given these conditions, if someone
could offer me a different interpretation of the upsetting situation, I
should be able to change my feelings rather easily. But we know that
often isn't true. Example: instead of feeling terrible about breaking up,
one could see new opportunities for better relationships. But usually
we can't see the situation differently, at least not easily, being dumped
remains a crisis. See chapter 14. Many therapists take such a
"reframing" approach, however, and it seems to work, sometimes.
Folk wisdom tells us to "look for the silver lining" or to "accentuate the
Although drugs can be useful (witness the millions of tranquilizer
and anti-depression prescriptions written), it is also possible that using
drugs before or during therapy or self-help might hinder improvement.
How? If the person attributed all improvement to drugs, he/she might
start relying entirely on drugs for help rather than on therapy or self-
help. Also, if the problems don't get better after taking drugs, the
person might falsely conclude they are getting worse rather than that
the drugs aren't working. Naturally, false assumptions about therapy
or self-help can be misleading too. 
The consequences of certain attributions are not always easily
understood. For instance, insomniacs given a placebo (a fake medicine
that has no pharmacological effect) which they were told would
produce alertness went to sleep faster than those given a placebo
"relaxation" pill. They presumably took some comfort in blaming the
pill for their awakeness and then fell asleep (Storms & Nisbett, 1970).
Storms and McCaul (1976) have proposed that concluding you are
responsible for some unwanted behavior is anxiety arousing. And,
increased anxiety may increase the unwanted behavior. Example:
thinking "I'm responsible for my speech problems" increased
stammering; thinking "my speech problems are due to the
experimental conditions" did not increase stammering. Yet, concluding
you are not responsible for unwanted behavior may very likely
decrease your anxiety and decrease your self-improvement efforts. So,
it's complex because the "I'm responsible" attribution is helpful in
many circumstances but not all. 
Are feelings good or bad?
A common saying is "you are responsible for your feelings." (For
the moment, let's forget about reflexive and unconscious feelings.)
Fortunately, all feelings can be viewed as natural, as neither good nor
bad. This is how: many people believe that feelings and thoughts can
not be bad because they hurt no one. Acts can be bad (because they
can hurt). From this viewpoint, there would be no need to hide our
feelings (unless disclosing the feelings hurt someone) and no need to
feel guilty about any thoughts or feelings. 
However, it is easy to see how we come to believe that thoughts
and feelings are bad. Suppose as a child you hit your little brother and
were spanked and told, "don't do that." As a 5-year-old you aren't
likely to figure out that the parent who hit you meant "your hitting is
bad but feeling angry is OK," so you grow up thinking "feeling angry is
bad." Many of our feelings are suppressed by being told "don't be a
scaredy cat," "big kids don't cry," "touching yourself down there is
naughty," etc. So, we learn to deny or dislike or feel guilty about many
feelings. We even hide many positive feelings: "I don't want him/her
to know I like him/her because he/she might not like me." 
In the guilt section of chapter 6 we discuss further the question of
whether thoughts (temptations to do something bad) are bad in the
sense that they may increase the probability that we will actually do
something bad. 
Feelings usually leak out
Feelings usually find a way to express themselves, however. There
are several ways subjective feelings get expressed: 
You may act on feelings: shout at someone when angry, cry
when sad, communicate (in body language) your interest when
attracted to someone. (These same behaviors--shouting, crying
and attracting--surely influence our feelings too.) 
You may have physiological reactions when feeling
something: you blush when embarrassed, have high blood
pressure when anxious, sexual arousal when attracted. Actually
psychologists do not yet know whether arousal precedes,
accompanies, or follows an emotional reaction (Weiner, 1980). 
You may try to suppress the feelings and deny being upset
or angry. Quite often people who deny their emotions think
they are healthy and well adjusted, but they tend to have high
blood pressure, high heart rate, an immune deficiency, high
incidence of cancer (Temoshok, 1992), difficulty sleeping, and
lots of aches and pains. 
You may try to change the situation: shout out orders like a
drill sergeant when things go wrong or become charming to
attract and influence someone. Note: yelling "shut up" at
someone implies but doesn't directly express your feeling, "I'm
angry at you." 
You may have one feeling to deny or conceal another:
criticism may hide attraction, crying may occur when you are
mad, love may hide scared dependency. Or, you may have one
feeling in response to another feeling: disgust to your own
homosexual interests, frustration to your shyness. 
You may blame others rather than assuming responsibility for
your own feelings: "You are a selfish, mean person" instead of
"I feel very hurt," "You are a lazy slob" instead of "I feel furious
when you are so sloppy," "You are arrogant" instead of "I'm
afraid you won't like me." Remember: you are more
responsible than anyone else for your feelings. In general, no
one can make you feel any way; it is usually your choice
(although some emotions are impossible to control--like a
startle reaction or grief following the loss of a loved one). See
the discussion of "I" statements in chapter 13 and
"psychologizing" in chapter 7. 
You may not be aware of the true nature of your emotions but
they can still have an effect on your life. Dramatic examples are
people with multiple personalities; an unconscious personality
may have feelings which are not known to the person until that
personality becomes conscious and "in control" later. Another
rare example is a woman who has spontaneous orgasms. One
possible explanation is that sexually arousing fantasies were
occurring unconsciously. More common examples that have
been well documented recently are the "sleeper effects" in
children of divorce. Example: children may be unaware of
emotions (fears, anger) during their parents' divorce but suffer
ill effects from the divorce years later, often when they become
intimate with someone. There are lots of things, especially
feelings, going on inside of us that we don't know about.
Haven't you felt upset after talking to someone without
knowing why? Don't you sometimes respond to events and
behaviors very differently than others do, and can't see why
you have such a different reaction? 
You may openly share your feelings with others. This involves
many skills: self-disclosure, "I" statements, social skills,
assertiveness, self-confidence etc. Telling your story, as in
therapy, self-help groups, or with friends, is usually healthy (as
long as you share your emotions and don't just stick to the
objective facts, and as long as the listeners are supportive). 
You may use your feelings as a barometer of your
relationships with others and your self-acceptance. Negative,
unwanted feelings are a sign that something needs to be
changed, that self-help is needed. 
Now we will look at ways to take control of your emotions. 
Methods for Changing Your Emotions
Understanding your emotions--behavior, feelings, physiology, and
thoughts--will help you plan ways to change them. Use the steps in
chapter 2. If an unwanted emotion is your main concern, read the
appropriate chapter (5 to 8) and then refer back to this chapter for
basic methods to change the emotional parts of the problem. 
First, don't forget that methods focusing on the behavior or
changing the environment (chapter 11) can also reduce an unpleasant
emotion, e.g. reduce your fear by putting better locks on the doors or
by avoiding someone you are mad at. Fears can also be reduced by
modeling someone who is less afraid than you are (see method #2 in
chapter 11). You can develop other behaviors that will counteract the
unwanted emotions, e.g. activity counteracts depression, assertion
counteracts anger, facing the fear counteracts it, relaxation
counteracts the hyperactivity of the workaholic, etc. Contrary to the
notion that "time heals," there is evidence, as discussed in chapter 5,
that fears, grief, memory of a trauma, etc. don't just fade away. These
feeling do decline if we repeatedly expose ourselves to the upsetting
situation or memory over and over again while relaxed or under less
stressful conditions (yet, becoming very distraught while talking to
friends about the "awful" situation doesn't usually help). However,
changing the consequences of a behavior can alter emotions also, e.g.
ask your friends to praise your healthy assertiveness and challenge
your mousy conformity. 
Second, don't forget that our thoughts strongly influence our
emotions. And, since we can sometimes change our thoughts and
since psychology is in a "cognitive" era, there is great emphasis on
cognitive methods at this time. See chapter 14
The methods here deal with basic raw emotions: anxiety or fears,
anger, and sadness. Of course, these same methods can be used on
the emotional part (level II) of any other problem. Passive-dependent
problems tend to be handled with cognitive-behavioral methods and
new skills. 
Emotions are a crucial part of our lives and they are fascinating.
Several recent books will help you understand. Lazarus & Lazarus
(1996) explain how emotions are aroused and their effects, including
the impact on our health (see chapter 5). Goleman (1995) argues that
we overemphasize academic IQ and neglect emotional IQ (knowing
and handling our gut feelings and impulses, self-motivation, people
skills). You might gain further insight into your feelings from several
other books: Averill & Nunley (1992) for being more creative in your
emotional life, Keen (1992a) for just exploring your emotions, Felder
(1988) for getting rid of your "emotional baggage," Preston (1993) for
working through emotional distress, and Kinder (1993) for
understanding why (a biological or brain chemistry orientation) you
feel the way you do and then for changing those feelings. 
Learning to produce desired emotions
Relaxation Training
Being able to relax at will is a handy skill. Most people can learn to
do so. There are many methods but they all have much in common.
No one relaxation technique is best for everyone. Madders (1997)
provides a practical, detailed guide to many relaxation exercises. Your
first task, then, is to find a method that works well for you. Three
methods will be described here: (1) deep muscle relaxation, (2)
recorded relaxation instructions, and (3) Benson's method. In addition,
relaxation via suggestion is provided in method #2, meditation is
described in method #5, self-hypnosis in chapter 14, and many other
approaches are possible: progressive relaxation (more complicated
than deep-muscle relaxation), taking a nap, taking a warm bath,
getting a massage, daydreaming, praying, gardening, reading, simple
work or hobbies. After learning a good method for you, the major
problem is taking the time to relax when you need to. 
The Anxiety Panic Internet Resources Web site describes various
disorders and provides suggestions about how to Relax
(http://www.algy.com/anxiety/). Many descriptions of "How to Relax"
are on the Web. Here are two: Guided Relaxation
sure to see desensitization and meditation later. 
To reduce tension and overcome general feelings of anxiety. 
To counter-condition fears and phobic reactions, as in
desensitization (method #6). 
To counteract panic reactions and to counteract the constant
activity of a workaholic or social addict. 
To aid other purposes, such as concentrating and increasing
learning efficiency, overcoming insomnia and improving sleep,
and improving one's general health. 
STEP ONE: Select a relaxation method to try; decide how to give
yourself the instructions.
Consider these three ways of relaxing and pick one to try: 
Deep-muscle relaxation is easy to learn. It is a simple routine:
first tense the muscles, then relax them. This procedure is used
with many small muscle groups all over the body. Most of the
anxiety and tension you feel is in your muscles. So, by focusing
on relaxing your muscles, you can calm and comfort your entire
body (and mind) by excluding distressing thoughts (since you
are concentrating on groups of muscles). This method is based
on the simple principle that muscles relax after being tensed,
especially if suggestions to relax are also being given. So, mind
and body can be calmed by starting with the muscles. The
detailed steps are given below. 
There are a large number of commercial cassettes that provide
relaxation instructions. Usually it is better to make your own
tape. In this case you start with the mind and send relaxing
messages to the muscles. Detailed instructions are given below
but you need a cassette recorder readily available to use this
The Benson (1975) method is basically meditation (see method
#5) used as a relaxation procedure. The idea is to free the
mind from external stimulation, which slows physiological
functions and reduces muscle tension...and that reduces
impulses to the brain...and so on in a beneficial cycle. Like
meditation, the calming effects of all these methods last
beyond the time doing relaxation. 
STEP TWO: Learn how to do the relaxation method you have
Below are detailed instructions for the three relaxation methods: 
Deep-muscle relaxation involves focusing on a small group
of muscles at a time, e.g. "make a fist" or "make a muscle in
both arms." With each set of muscles you go through the same
three-step procedure: (a) tense the muscles. Notice each
muscle. Tighten the muscles until they strain but not hurt. The
muscles may tremble which is okay but be careful with your
feet and other muscles that tend to cramp. It does not need to
be rigorous exercise. Hold the muscles tense for 5 to 10
seconds. (b) Suddenly, say relax to your self and let the
muscles relax completely. (c) Focus your attention on the
marked change in the muscles from when they are tense to
when they are relaxed. Enjoy the pleasure and relief that
comes with relaxation. Give yourself instructions to relax more
and more, to feel more and more comfortable all over. Relish
the peaceful, refreshing, rejuvenating calm for 20 to 30
seconds, then repeat the process with the same muscles or
with a new group. In this way you replace muscle tension with
soothing relaxation all over your body. 
At first, this three-step procedure may need to be repeated
two or three times for each set of muscles. With practice,
however, you can relax in a few minutes. Use groups of
muscles something like the following (don't get overly precise
about this, any group of muscles will do fine): 
Hands and forearms--"make a tight fist"
and bend it down towards the elbow. Start
with one arm, move to both arms. 
Biceps--"make a muscle." Both arms. 
Triceps--stretch the arm out straight,
tensing the muscle in the back of the arm.
Both arms. 
Upper body
Forehead--raise eyebrows and "wrinkle
Eyes--close eyes tightly (careful if wearing
Jaws--clinch teeth 
Tongue--press against roof of mouth 
Lips--press lips together 
Neck--roll head right, back, left, down
(chin on chest) 
Shoulders--shrug up, move forward and
Chest--inhale and hold it, relax as you
Stomach--"suck it in," push it out 
Back--arch it 
Thighs--make legs stiff and bend toes and
feet up towards knees 
Calves--make legs stiff and straight,
bending toes and feet down away from
Toes--curl toes 
Total body
Occasionally give self-instructions for the
muscles recently relaxed to continue
relaxing more and more. Check to see if
all are comfortable; if not, move them or
go through the tense-relax routine again. 
Give general instructions to feel good and
warm and heavy, to smooth out the
muscles, to feel calm and rested, to enjoy
the relaxation, etc. 
Imagine you are floating down a mountain
side on a soft cloud, enjoying the view
and counting down slowly from 10 (top) to
1 (bottom), and feeling more and more
deeply relaxed as you float to the bottom
of the mountain. 
When you want to come out of the relaxed state, say to
yourself: "To wake up I'm going to count from 1 to 10. When I
reach 10 I will be awake and refreshed. 1...2...3...4...5...you're
half way there...6...7...8...begin to stretch...9...10, wide awake
and feeling good. 
Recorded relaxation instructions should, of course, be done
in a soft, soothing voice, using a good recorder. Speak slowly
and draw out the words like a hypnotist: "de-e-e-eply relaxed."
The self-instructions suggested below are adapted from a script
by Dorothy Suskind (Cheek, 1976). Make whatever changes
you like, perhaps using some of the deep-muscle relaxation
"Get comfortable. Close your eyes. Listen carefully and try
to relax as fully as you can. Now, stretch your legs out as far as
they can go. Turn your toes under and tighten the muscles in
your feet very, very tight. Hold it. And now also tighten the
muscles in your calves and those in your thighs. Make your
entire leg--both of them--straight and tight as a drum, very
tense, and hold it, hold it (about 6 to 8 seconds). And now,
relax all the muscles in your toes, all the muscles in your
calves, all the muscles in your thighs. Notice the relaxation. Let
your legs go completely limp. And now, feel that wonderful
relaxation coming up from your toes, up your calves, up your
thighs. Feeling wonderfully relaxed, very comfortable, warm
and limp, very calm, very relaxed. Feeling beautiful, just
beautiful, wonderfully relaxed. 
Now stretch out your arms. Make tight fists with your
hands. Feel the tightness, and now make it tighter, tighter,
tighter. Hold it. And now bend both fists down toward your
forearm, tense the muscles in your wrist, in your forearm, in
your upper arm. Tense it until it trembles. Hold it. Hold it. And
now, let go, just let go, and let that wonderful feeling of
relaxation flow right through your fingers, your hands, your
forearm, and your upper arm. Let your arms go completely
limp. Feeling wonderfully relaxed, completely relaxed, very
calm, warm, limp, comfortable and beautiful, just beautiful. 
Now, with your eyes still closed, imagine yourself relaxing
all over...(you can tense and relax each part if you like)...relax
your face, your neck, your shoulders, your back, your stomach,
all over. 
I will now count down from 10 to 1. I am going to find
myself deeper and deeper relaxed and I will have a feeling of
well-being, as I count down to 1. Calm and relaxed, and
wonderfully well, just relaxed. 
I'm going to count, 10...9...8...7...6...5, very, very relaxed,
4...3, very deeply relaxed, 2...and 1. I am very calm, very
relaxed, and getting more and more deeply relaxed all the
Think of nothing now but relaxation, feeling wonderfully
relaxed, calm, feeling well all over, just relaxed, calm, relaxed,
feeling wonderfully well. 
I will now enjoy some quiet time just relaxing. Then when
I'm ready to wake up, I'll start the player again. I'll stop the
tape player at this time so I can enjoy quiet relaxation as long
as I want" ............ (leave a 15-20 second pause on the tape) 
"I am now ready to wake up and come back to the real
world. When I count to 10, I will open my eyes and feel calm,
I'll feel refreshed and wonderfully well, 1...2...3...4...5...6,
more and more alert, 7...8, beginning to move, 9...10, feeling
wonderfully relaxed but awake and eager to get on with the
Herbert Benson's method of relaxation is as easy as the
above methods but may take more practice. In his second
book, Benson (1984) recommends using a short meaningful
phrase or religious saying for meditating, instead of the word
"one" which was his 1975 suggestion. For the religious or
values-conscious person, a moral phrase helps involve the
relaxing power of faith--and you may be less likely to forget to
meditate. What words to use? Any phrase of 6 or 8 words or
less that has special meaning for you. Examples: 
"I am the way, the truth, and the life" (John 14:6). 
"Thy will be done." 
"My peace I give unto you" (John 14:27). 
"You shall love thy neighbor" (Lev. 19:18). 
"Joy is inward" (Hindu). 
"Life is a journey" (Buddhist). 
"Allah" (Moslem) or "Shalom" (Jewish) or "Peace." 
"Fear brings more pain than the pain it fears." 
"Do unto others as you would have them do unto you." 
"I can not do everything at once but I can do
"God, give me serenity, courage and wisdom." 
"Life's greatest gift is to love and be loved." 
"It takes both rain and sunshine to make a rainbow." 
"To understand is to pardon." 
"The smallest good deed is better than the grandest
After selecting or making up a phrase (a mantra), follow this
(a) Sit in a comfortable position in private. 
(b) Close your eyes gently. 
(c) Relax. Search your body for tension; relax the tense
spots by moving or stretching or tensing the muscles
and then relaxing deeper and deeper. 
(d) Notice your breathing but let it be natural, don't
control it. Start saying your selected phrase as you
exhale. Say it silently, say it mentally to yourself. Say
the special phrase each time you exhale (that's why it
needs to be short). After you have found a phrase that
works well for you, continue to use it every time. (This is
relaxation, not a time to learn sayings.) 
(e) Your mind may wander. That's OK, don't worry
about it. Passively observe the mind's thoughts and
accept whatever happens. Just lazily bring your mind
back to your special word or phrase. Just relax. Focusing
on your special phrase is simply a way of relinquishing
your control over your mind. Let your mind relax or do
its own thing. When you become aware that the mind
has wandered and has now finished its thought, bring it
back to repeating the special phrase every time you
exhale. Enjoy the peace. (See method #5 for more
information about meditating.) 
STEP THREE: Arrange a private place and schedule a specific
time for relaxing
A private place is crucial: a bedroom, a private office at work, even
a bathroom might be the best place. You should take 10-15 minutes
twice a day. Ideally, it should be a comfortable place with no
interruptions. A bed or a chair with arms and a high, soft back is good
(as long as you don't go to sleep). Many people get sleepy if they
meditate after a meal. Drown out distracting noise with a neutral
sound: a fan, air conditioner, or soft instrumental music. Turning off
the lights helps. Perhaps you had better tell your roommate, co-
workers, family, etc., what you are doing, if there is any chance they
will walk into the room. 
STEP FOUR: Relaxing on command
Most people can relax easily in comfortable, familiar, quiet
surroundings. But, that isn't where we have the stress. It is harder to
relax when called on to speak to a group or when taking a test. What
can you do then? One possibility: pair a silently spoken word, like
"relax," with actually relaxing. Do this thousands of times, as in the
relaxation exercises above or by mentally thinking "relax" as you
exhale. In this way the internal command--"relax"--becomes not only
a self-instruction but also a conditioned stimulus, an automatic
prompter of a relaxation response (like a cigarette, see chapter 4). So,
when you get uptight, you can silently say "relax" and feel better. It is
no cure all but it helps. 
STEP FIVE: Relaxation--a routine or as needed
Many people would say that relaxation should be practiced
faithfully twice a day, seven days a week. That is certainly necessary if
you hope to establish a more relaxed level of physiological functioning
on a continuous basis. Other people use a relaxation technique
anytime they have a few minutes to rest. Still others use relaxation
only when tension is getting excessive and/or they need to slow down,
such as at bed time. Any of these uses are fine; however, they all
require practice in advance, i.e. you can't wait until a crisis hits and
then decide you want instant relaxation. 
Time involved
It may take 4 or 5 hours to learn the method, practice it, make the
recording, or whatever is involved. Thereafter, the technique may be
used 15 to 30 minutes a day or only occasionally. 
Common problems with the method
Many can't find the time to relax twice a day, especially the people
who need it the most. Although 10 to 15% of students are reluctant to
try a relaxation technique in class, almost everyone can become
deeply relaxed with practice. A few people fall asleep while relaxing. If
you do, you may need to set an alarm. 
Effectiveness, advantages and dangers
All the above methods, if used faithfully, seem to be effective
during the relaxation session. Some research has suggested that
meditation works a little better than the other methods, at least for
reducing general anxiety (Eppley, Abrams, & Shear, 1989). How much
the relaxation continues beyond the session is questionable, however,
regardless of the method used. Seeking calm in a storm is a difficult
task. In many of us, the stress reaction is just too strong to be easily
overridden; we may need to withdraw from the stressful situation for a
while (and consider using method #6, desensitization). 
One would think that relaxing would be the safest thing in the
world for a self-helper to do. It probably is, but several therapists have
reported panic attacks in patients when relaxation is tried in therapy
(Lazarus & Mayne, 1990). This negative reaction has been observed
primarily in persons suffering from very high anxiety. For most people,
this shouldn't be a concern. In a class setting, I have found that 5-
10% of the students do not fully participate in a relaxing exercise in
class. Some don't like closing their eyes; others are reluctant to
publicly "make a muscle," "suck in your stomach," "arch your back"
(thus, throwing out your chest), etc. But almost everyone can learn to
relax. Imaging relaxing visual scenes (a warm sunny day on the
beach) works best for some people; repeating calming sayings and
self-instructions works better for others; sitting in a warm bath
reading a magazine works wonderfully for some. Madders (1997),
Cautela & Groden (1993), and Sutcliffe (1995) describe several self-
relaxation methods. 
Additional readings
Davis, M., Eshelman, E. R., & McKay, M. (1995). The relaxation
& stress reduction workbook. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger
Louden, J. (1992). The woman's comfort book. San Francisco:
Jacobson, E. (1964). Self operations control: A manual of
tension control. Philadelphia: J. P. Lippincott Co.
Curtis, J. D. & Detert, R. A. (1981). How to relax: A holistic
approach to stress management. Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield
Publishing Co. 
Rosen, G. M. (1976). Don't be afraid: A program for
overcoming your fears and phobias. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Rosen, G. M. (1977). The relaxation book. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Smith, J. C. (1985). Relaxation Dynamics. Champaign, IL:
Research Press. 
Moods by suggestion: calm scene, relaxation, elation
In the Western world we are preoccupied with the external world--
the world of work or TV or interpersonal relations. In Eastern cultures
they are more concerned with the inner world--fantasy and thoughts.
They use meditation and seek an inner serenity, partly as a way of
coping with harsh external realities and partly for the benefits an inner
life offers. There is a stigma against daydreaming in our culture. It can
be a way of avoiding reality or a way of rehearsing for the future.
Fortunately, there is a connection between thoughts and feelings, so
emotions can be influenced via fantasies. Harry Truman said, "I have a
foxhole in my mind," meaning he had a place in his mind where he
could escape the explosive issues bombarding him from the external
To produce a desired feeling or mood: relaxation, elation,
nostalgia, greater awareness and concentration, and increased
motivation (see fantasies for achievement in chapter 14). 
STEP ONE: Prepare the instructions for whatever feelings you
want to produce
Four methods of changing feelings are illustrated below: (1) a calm
scene, (2) self-monitoring for relaxation, (3) positive affirmation
statements for a positive mental attitude, and (4) elation and
expanded consciousness. 
A calm scene. All of us have memories of being somewhere and
feeling carefree, calm and happy. Imagining such a relaxed or pleasant
moment in your life can arouse calm or happy feelings. For relaxation,
it should be a scene in which you are inactive (it's hard to relax while
thinking of climbing a mountain or swimming a river). Examples: lying
in the warm sun on a beach or a boat, resting in front of a fireplace
and watching the flames, walking leisurely in a woods on a beautiful
fall day, sitting on a mountain top and looking at the lush, peaceful
valley below, or sitting in your room, looking out the window and
resting, just watching the world go by. Select a comfortable, peaceful,
pleasant scene that has special meaning for you. 
My calm scene is walking alone by a small stream that winds
through a meadow in front of my boyhood home. I remember minute
details: the clearness of the spring-fed water, the softness of the
grass, the rolling hills, the warmth of the sun, the minnows and water
spiders, the big sycamore trees, building a dam with a buddy, mud-
crawling, dreaming about the future, being alone but not lonely,
perhaps because of the beckoning warmth of my house nearby. 
Self-monitoring. It is simple. Use the senses of the body as a
biofeedback machine. Sit down or lie down. Get relaxed and close your
eyes. Pay attention to every sensation, everything that goes on in your
body. Don't try to understand or explain what is happening, just
observe. Express in words what is happening. Scan the body and
report everything you notice. An example: Eye lids grow heavier,
shoulders slump and back bends, breathing deep, stomach growls,
throat swallows, ringing in ears, muscles in face seem quiet and
heavy, etc. 
This is an old technique (Curtis, 1986). It is good for general
nervousness. Somehow the stressful sensations decline and peace
Positive affirmations. Many people believe that imagining doing
something well increases actual ability and self-confidence. So athletes
imagine hitting a home run, divers imagine a prefect dive, a speaker
imagines an excellent delivery. Supposedly, the unconscious mind
doesn't know the difference between a real experience and an
imagined one. So, your self-esteem grows. Likewise, if you say, with
feeling, positive things to yourself, a positive mental attitude will
develop. Picture in your mind exactly what you want to do or be. Feel
positive and confident as you imagine the desired behavior. 
The statements should be repeated several times each session and
during 3 or 4 sessions each day. Examples of positive affirmations
(notice they describe in the present tense what you will be doing --"I
am calm" or "slim," not "I want to be calm" nor "I am not tense" or "I
am not fat"): 
For a better self-concept and positive mental attitude--
Every day in every way, I am getting better and better. 
I succeed because I believe I can. 
I am filled with loving kindness. 
I am happy and content. 
To encourage some achievement--
I am proud of my body (visualize how you will look at your
ideal weight). 
I am an excellent student; I love to learn. 
I can play _____ unusually well. 
To relax and be healthy--
I am healthy, happy and relaxed. 
Pain free, happy me. 
To reduce worry--
forget the past and the future--I'm in the here and now. 
I accept any challenge; I can handle it. 
Expanded consciousness. This fantasy method was described by
Gibbon (1973) for increased awareness, greater concentration, better
problem-solving ability, and feelings of competence. Have a problem in
mind to work on before you start the exercise. It's not a good fantasy
for people with a fear of heights or of flying. You can have the
experience more fully if all you have to do is listen, so record these
abbreviated instructions: 
"Get comfortable and close your eyes. Imagine you are in the
gondola of a large hot air balloon. You are resting and watching what
is happening with interest. Let your imagination go free, have vivid
images of the things I suggest to you. It is a beautiful day. The balloon
is filling. See the meadow around you. You have nothing to do but
relax and experience the thrill of the ride. 
The balloon is nearly full. Soon you will take off and as you go
higher, your awareness and concentration and thinking will also
become higher. I'm going to count from 1 to 10. With each count the
balloon will go higher and your mind will expand greater until it is able
to be aware of everything. You will become much more aware of
reality and have a greater appreciation of truth and beauty. Now, the
balloon gently and quietly takes off, I begin to count and your
consciousness starts to expand. 
One. As you float higher, you will have a new
experience...pleasant, exciting feelings of increased awareness
and sensitivity. 
Two. A little higher. You are entering a higher level of
consciousness. You are comfortable. You are feeling good about
using your full mental capacity. 
Three. You enjoy the quiet, smooth ride, the fantastic view, the
Four Your range of awareness is continually expanding. Your
perception is keener. You attention and concentration is even
more under your control. 
Five Rising higher and higher. Your confidence increases and
you feel better and better. 
Six Your consciousness increases but your awareness is not
overloaded. You feel joy as your senses reach their highest
Seven You experience a release, a new freedom as your
intuitive and intellectual potentials reach their peak. As you go
still higher, your heightened abilities will enable you to see
causes and relationships you never realized before. 
Eight You are very high now. Soon you will enter a new
dimension, where your insight is especially keen and
Nine All the way up to the edge of space. You are ready to
experience and concentrate and reason better than ever before. 
Ten Now you are at the top. Your abilities, awareness and
understanding are ready to disclose new meaning and new
solutions. You are eager to use these skills to solve your
concerns. Take as long as you want. As you focus on real
problems, take time to understand the causes. Don't skip over
or run away from any cause--consider it carefully. Can you see
things differently now? Can you discover new feelings you had
not been aware of before? Can you understand the feelings of
others better? 
Next, take time to invent new and better solutions to your
problems. Imagine how each course of action might work out.
Consider unusual solutions and combinations of solutions. Decide on
the best approach. If other insights come to you, accept them but go
back to solving the main problem. 
Now, turn off the tape player until you are ready to 'come down'
and wake up." (Leave short pause on tape.) 
Start tape again when you are ready to stop: 
"OK, we are ready to descend. I'll count from 10 to 1. When I get
to 1 you will be back in a normal, everyday state of consciousness.
You will feel good and refreshed and grateful for the special time to
think. You will remember everything that has happened and all your
Ten. Starting to drift downward and back to a normal state of
Nine. Coming down. You will remember everything. 
Eight. Gently floating down. You are feeling wonderful. 
Seven. Enjoying the experience. 
Six. Continuing down. 
Five. Down. At the count of 1 your eyes will open. 
Four. You see the ground slowly approaching. 
Three. Soon you'll be back relaxed and refreshed. 
Two. Almost down. A grassy meadow below. It will be a gentle
landing. You feel great. 
One. You are down. Open your eyes. You feel wonderful." 
STEP TWO: Find a quiet place and get prepared
Use a quiet, comfortable, private place, like a bedroom. Make your
recording if needed. Place the player near your hand so you can easily
turn it on and off. 
STEP THREE: Have the fantasy as vividly as possible
Have the experience. Get into it as deeply as possible; have
detailed and vivid imagery, using all your senses, and put your feelings
into it. It may be helpful to record each experience and compare your
reactions over time. 
Time involved
Preparation time may take from 15 minutes to an hour. However,
most of these mood-altering exercises must be repeated for 10-15
minutes, two or more times a day to be effective. 
Common problems with the methods
In general, they promise too much, especially expanded
consciousness. Take a "try-it-and-see" attitude. Another problem is
that some people have poor visualization abilities. If you don't
visualize well, try another modality, i.e. have your fantasies more in
words and feelings. Through practice you can develop a more vivid
Effectiveness, advantages and dangers
Fantasies do generate feelings. There are few experiments in this
area but many clinical reports of distress brought on by unpleasant
memories and thoughts about possible disasters. Some actors create
tears by thinking of a sad event. It is reasonable that positive
emotions can be created in the same way. As mentioned in method
#1, a few people are reluctant to relax or close their eyes in class. The
advantage is that these methods are simple, straightforward, and done
on your own. There are no known dangers. 
Additional readings
Maltz, M. (1960). Psycho-Cybernetics 
How to be happy--determinism
Many people would say, "I just want to be happy." It is a worthy
goal but few people know how to find happiness. Some would say they
want to have a good education and an interesting career. Others would
say they want a loving spouse and a nice family. Others want a career,
a family, good health, good friends, a nice house, two sharp cars, good
relationships with both families, and enough money to take an
extended vacation each year and to be comfortable. What would you
say you need to be happy? 
In our culture, almost everyone has a list of needs or wants. We
want pleasures--good looks, a good sexual relationship, friendships,
fun experiences, etc., etc. We want possessions--a good sound
system, a sporty car, nice clothes, etc., etc. We all need some
pleasure in life. But, the problem is when we start to believe that
pleasures and possessions are the way to be happy. Once we begin to
think that way, we start to say "if I just had _(an education, a
boyfriend, a good job, a happy marriage, enough money to retire, a
good relationship with my family...) _, I'd be happy." Our
achievements and acquisitions have become the source of our
happiness. We are soon in trouble: we don't get all that we want; we
always want more, not matter how much we have. Old pleasures lose
their thrill; possessions quickly become an old inferior model. There is
always something excitingly newer, better, faster, bigger, and more
Once you say "I need ____ to be happy," you have created a self-
destructive mind game. Happiness can not be based on having
possessions; cars break down, houses deteriorate, clothes quickly go
out of style, etc. Happiness can not be based on pleasures; marriages
fall apart, friends drift away, power fades, eating and drinking make us
fat, etc. OK, what can happiness be based on? An accepting frame of
mind; a tolerance of whatever is because whatever is, is right.
Whatever happens in life is lawful (see method #4 in chapter 14). It
takes time to understand this viewpoint. Look into it carefully. 
A belief in determinism is not a helpless-hopeless position; it is not
being without goals, preferences, opinions, or values. In fact, it is
important to have a respected mission in life and to have high values;
they are great sources of pleasure. It is important that you use the
laws of behavior to do your best, that you help others, and that you
try to make the world better. But after you have done your best, you
must accept the outcome, regardless of what it is (Mikulas, 1983).
Do your best on a job or in a relationship, but accept being dismissed
or rejected, if that is what happens. Accept reality. Unconditional
positive regard of others and of yourself is a major factor in finding
Other factors contributing to happiness include learning to have
some influence over your world, to be able to make your situation
better, and to have confidence in your self-control. To become happy it
is necessary to be able to handle unhappy feelings when they come
along (see chapter 6). You can't be happy and unhappy (or angry) at
the same time about the same specific issue. You can, of course, be
happy about certain aspects of an issue and unhappy about other
This section helps me make the point that the development of a
particular emotional state, such as happiness, is sometimes very
complex and involves many self-help methods. Obviously, all the
methods for reducing depression might apply to generating happiness,
but happiness is much more than the absence of sadness. You see the
point. (If you are thinking that this method is very cognitive, I agree
that it is closely related to the methods in chapter 14.) 
To understand how to achieve happiness. 
To avoid futile attempts to achieve happiness via pleasures,
possessions, or indifferent and irresponsible behaviors. 
STEP ONE: Read method #4 in chapter 14 about determinism
and learn to accept reality and the lawfulness of life.
This is not an easy task. It takes time to shake off our
consumption ("Gimme") orientation towards happiness. Mikulas (1983)
has an interesting analogy: Suppose you lived 1000 years ago and
were asked if you would like to live in 2000 with warm houses, cars,
airplanes, TV, free education, good medical care, etc. Of course, if you
were living in 1000 A.D. in a dirt floored hut, with little education, with
many children dying from diseases, with starvation everywhere, and
with no entertainment, etc., you would think 2000 would be wonderful.
You would assume that everyone in 2000 would be gleefully happy!
But all of our advantages, knowledge, possessions and pleasures have
not made us happy. Hopefully, in 3000, we will know much more
about being productive, moral, and happy. 
Read about determinism (method #4 in chapter 14) and try to give
up your frustrations with the way that things are at this moment in
your life. You can start making realistic plans for changing some things
you don't like, but accept and "understand" the way things are. Most
importantly, this accepting, tolerant attitude reduces resentment and
frustration with others and with your self. Carl Rogers called it
"unconditional positive regard." 
STEP TWO: Learn to have some control over your life.
Even if you are well cared for at this time, no one can be entirely
comfortable realizing that they are unable to support themselves,
should the need arise. A personal or interpersonal problem is always
possible; the person who feels unable to cope with independent
survival must feel uneasy. Learning more about handling ordinary
problems for people like you provides a basis for greater happiness.
Self-help reading should help. 
STEP THREE: Work on reducing the emotions, mostly sadness
and anger, that are incompatible with happiness.
Of the four major emotions, depression and anger are the most
inconsistent with happiness. They have to be kept at a fairly low level.
See chapters 6 and 7 for the steps to take. The other emotions are not
as crucial, i.e. we can be moderately stressed and still be happy; we
can be quite passive-dependent and be happy. 
STEP FOUR: There needs to be some pleasures in every life.
The pleasures may be few and simple, but we need some. There
are an infinite number of options. Develop some, if you don't have
any. But, keep it perfectly clear in your mind that these pleasures are
not the source of happiness in your life. If a pleasure becomes
unavailable, you can find another. 
STEP FIVE: Your life should have a purpose, it should have
important meaning to you.
As chapter 3 in the beginning of this book argues, we all need a
philosophy of life that we are proud of and willing to follow day by day.
That chapter will help you plan a more worthwhile life. 
Time involved
Finding happiness is a major undertaking taking many, many
hours, maybe years. The effort is truly unending, because most lives
experience a series of great losses which are not easily accepted, e.g.
death, failure, mental illness, etc. 
Common problems
My experience is that people resist the deterministic notion. The
American belief that there is a quick solution to every problem is very
strong. It transforms into the idea that we don't have to tolerate
anything we don't like, we can just get rid of the problem. Thus, the
idea that we should accept our circumstances-of-the-moment becomes
viewed as a weak, incompetent, fatalistic position. But the truth is that
many of life's downers are unavoidable--and irreversible once they
have happened. Sad events are inevitable. So, in these instances, we
have only two choices: accept it as lawful or hate what has happened.
In no way, should determinism lead to a fatalistic, pessimistic view of
tomorrow, however. 
Effectiveness, advantages and dangers
Seeking to be happy is such a complex process that science is
decades away from objectively assessing the effectiveness of all the
steps involved. Being happy is a worthy goal (if it involves facing life
as it really is), however. Shared experiences and science will help us. I
don't know of any dangers from trying to be happy, as long as we face
reality and are responsible. 
Suggested reading
Mikulas, W. L. (1983). Skills of living. New York: University
Press of America. 
Gaining peace of mind; centering
Many people believe there is a peaceful place inside us, called "the
center." From that place, you can see things clearly without
distortions; you can think straight without confusion; you can relax
without tension. 
The crux of this idea is to think of "the center" as being an internal
place from which you are aware of all the other parts but you can
remain detached or apart from all the other parts of yourself.
Examples: from the center, you are aware of your body and its
feelings, but you are not your body. You (the centered observer)
recognize your emotions, but you are not your emotions. You are not
your behaviors or your thoughts; you are an objective observer.
Indeed, the centered self may decide to change any of these parts--
your body, feelings, actions, and mind. But, when you are "centered,"
you can not be hurt, you are not vulnerable. You can observe your
behavior and see that you are messing up, but the centered self does
not emotionally react. You observe the agitation of the mind, the pain
of the body, and the hurt emotions, but the centered self remains calm
and at peace, just observing in a clear, calm way. This method could
clearly be placed in chapter 14, also. 
To develop a safe "observation station" from which you can see
all your conscious parts. 
To become able to escape the stress of external pressures or
intense emotions. 
STEP ONE: Gradually develop the capacity to be "centered."
The "center" or the "centered self" has to be built through
conscious effort. We have to learn to go there and "center" or calm
ourselves. How can we do this? Through efforts to relax and detach
yourself from a constantly active mind and from demanding emotions,
you can find some peace. With practice, you can get better at
withdrawing from the stress (while becoming an even keener
observer). Several other steps will help you do this. 
STEP TWO: Meditation will also help you detach yourself from
the mind. Periods of relaxation will help.
Meditation is very effective in quieting the mind (see method #5).
This is good training for centering. 
STEP THREE: Use determinism to increase your acceptance of
what is happening (see method #3 and chapter 14).
By understanding that there are causes for everything that
happens, we can start to focus more on observing the true causes and
less on some emotional reaction, such as "ain't it awful," "that should
never have happened," etc. We can relax because we know the
outcome was lawful (unless we witnessed a miracle). 
As Mikulas (1983) points out, this accepting attitude gives us a
certain freedom--a toleration of whatever happens. We may, of
course, have a preference about what happens, and if the desired
behavior occurs, we are happy, but if something else happens, we can
be equally happy, because we accept reality (laws) and we learned
some important information about the laws of behavior. The freedom
from being right or winning and just focusing on observing and
learning is a great relief. 
STEP FOUR: Give up trying to control everything, loosen up.
As it is said in Desiderata, whether you understand it or not, the
world is unfolding as it should. Eastern philosophies advocate
acceptance or "going with the flow of the river." Going upstream is
very hard and probably isn't the right direction anyway. Focus on
learning to control your own life within a little bubble, don't worry
much about changing the course of great rivers. 
STEP FIVE: With practice you can learn to have a detached,
calm, accepting attitude. That is peace of mind.
Peace of mind includes more than inner calm, it is accepting
oneself, others, and the world. It is being sensitive to being off center,
i.e. things beginning to go wrong, and doing something about the
problems right away. It is a wonderful mental state, but no one can
achieve it all the time. 
Time involved
These changes require major revisions in the way we think, that
will take a lot of time and effort. 
Common problems
The difficulty many people have accepting determinism is
discussed in the last method. Likewise, most people believe they are
their actions, beliefs, feelings, etc. Becoming detached from what has
been the "essence of ourselves" is very difficult. That is why it takes so
long to learn. 
Effectiveness, advantages and dangers
Several major therapies, as well as Eastern philosophies, advocate
"centering" and have great faith in it. Aside from personal testimony,
there is little research of it effectiveness (research mostly consists of
assessing the influence of something that can be carried out in 30
minutes or so). The advantages of being calm and an astute observer
are obvious, if they are true. There are no known dangers, although
anything that might reduce our vigilance and sensitivity to problems
could be a problem. 
My greatest reservation is centered on the promises implied about
peace of mind, much like the promises associated with meditation and
hypnosis. The promises of "clear, accurate perceptions," "effective
minds free of confusion," and "a real self that can't be hurt," are
Recommended readin
Mikulas, W. L. (1983). Skills of living. New York: University
Press of America. 
Reducing Unwanted Emotions
Meditation is, in its simplest form, an unguided, unintentional,
sustained fantasy or mental state of reflection and contemplation. It is
a relaxing experience, and adult "quiet time," a self-paced
desensitization process. But insight is often hoped for as well as
relaxation. Indeed, the Tibetan meditates to commune with the
"cosmic mind," not to relax. But why might some insight occur even if
you don't believe in a cosmic mind? Meditation involves shutting out
the complex and confusing external world and, at the same time,
making no demands on the mind. Some theorists assume that the
mind, unburdened with pressing everyday demands and monumental
problems to solve, is automatically clear and creative in providing for
our growth and inner harmony. Thus, when the mind is free to focus
where it will (not where we direct), it explores important topics and
gains deeper understanding for us. Other theorists make different
assumptions, namely, that during meditation the person focuses all
their attention on one activity--breathing or a candle or a sound--
which diverts energy away from holding down repressed thoughts and
feelings. Thus, the unconscious thoughts and emotions can, in theory,
escape or slip out, leading to new insights and awareness. 
Meditation is commonly associated with religion, both eastern
religions and Christianity, as we saw in method #1, Benson's method
of relaxing. Many people meditate seeking greater religious faith or
communion with God. Meditation is an ancient art. About 500 B.C.
Buddha said that (1) life is suffering, (2) suffering is caused by
desires, and (3) reduce your suffering by giving up desires. Thus, Zen
meditation became an accepting way of life in the East, not a way, like
self-help, to actively solve and remove immediate personal problems
but a passive-acceptance way. 
To provide relaxation and, consequently, better health. (Be
skeptical, see cautions below.) 
To achieve the state of "restful awakeness" in which the body
slows down (breathing rate, heart rate, and EEG waves have
been demonstrated to be reduced) and the mind supposedly
becomes more capable (not proven) and one becomes more
confident of self-control. 
There are many more benefits claimed for meditation but they are
Solutions to pressing personal problems. 
The recall of early repressed experiences. 
By recognizing the constancy of change, you become better
prepared for and more accepting of change. 
By sensing your oneness with others, with God, and with the
universe, you may gain the joy and comfort of being a natural
part of all that is and ever will be. 
There are dangerous claims by some radical writers that serious
physical diseases can be cured (like cancer). There are mystical
claims, for instance that your soul can leave your body and
travel great distances to communicate with others. 
STEP ONE: Read more about meditation
Meditation is done daily, perhaps for life. To even get a feel for
meditation you need to read about it and practice it for a few months.
So it is a major undertaking; you need good advice from more than
one teacher. Several references are given below; I recommend Kabat-
Zinn (1990 and 1994), Singh (1996), or Goleman (1991). A word of
caution: some writers promise magical, mystical powers. This poses a
problem: you need to be motivated and to have hopes that meditating
for months will bring rewards, but to hope for "magic" and, as a result,
forsake better forms of treatment would be a mistake. Meditation is
worthwhile as a relaxant alone (see Benson). If it also brings you a few
insights from time to time, that's a bonus. There are no miracle self-
help methods. 
STEP TWO: Find a daily time and place to meditate
Set aside one-half hour each day. Select a time when you are least
pressured. Of course, it is essential to have a quiet, uninterrupted
place, perhaps your room, a church or a private spot outdoors. 
STEP THREE: Get into a comfortable, alert position and withdraw
Sit in a comfortable, relaxed position. Do not lie down, the head
should be free to move. The classical position is the crossed legs, but
any sitting position is fine, e.g. in a simple straight back chair. Then
close your eyes (unless focusing on a visual object). Sit quietly for a
minute or so, letting your body relax and your mind forget the external
pressures on you. Withdraw to within yourself. 
STEP FOUR: To free the mind, focus on something constant
The purpose is to free the mind. Thus, no demands should be
made on it by the external world or by your own directions or wishes.
The way pressure is removed from the mind is to focus your attention
on one thing, e.g. (1) the flame of a candle, (2) your own breathing--
the internal sensations in the nose, throat, chest and stomach created
by breathing, or (3) a simple pleasant sound (called a mantra), such
as "oohmm" or "hoomme," made every time you exhale. 
When images or thoughts do occur to your mind, don't be
concerned, don't pursue them or push them out. Remember, you are
giving up control. Just relax and when the thought is finished, go back
to focusing on the candle or breathing or sound. The focusing should,
with practice, become effortless. 
STEP FIVE: Let the mind go free, observe it
You merely continue to focus your awareness on something
(candle, breathing or sound); it is not determined concentration. Don't
insist that your mind stay on the focus, which would be controlling
your thoughts. Give up control, just let things happen. Thoughts,
plans, memories, and fantasies will enter your mind. You may get lost
in a thought for a little while. That is fine. When the thoughts have
passed, return to your focus of awareness. The mind should be left
free, "on its own." Occasionally, it will seem as though nothing is
happening. That's fine too. Stay relaxed. It is all natural. Your attitude
is important; be serious, calm, interested, optimistic, tolerant, relaxed,
and open to new insights but not pressing for them. 
Calmly observe whatever comes into your awareness--images,
fantasies, emotions, concerns, thoughts or solutions. If it is important,
you will remember it, no effort is necessary. Always return to your
focus and make no demands on your mind. With practice, skeptical
ideas and distracting sensations, like an itch, will fade away. More
frequently you will have thoughts or feelings that reveal more
significant emotions and insights. Your ability to relax will gradually
increase. Don't demand rapid progress; being self-critical or
dissatisfied with meditation only slows your progress. 
STEP SIX: Coming back to the real world
After 20 to 30 minutes, stop focusing your awareness on the
candle, breathing or sound and allow yourself to slowly come out of
the deep state of relaxation. Open your eyes. Move slightly. Start
thinking again. This may take two or three minutes but you should
emerge relaxed and with new energy. 
STEP SEVEN: Record the experience
You may find it profitable to record the experiences you have while
meditating (like a dream journal--see chapter 14). Or you may want to
rate the relaxation and/or useful insight after each session in order to
measure progress. Do not expect fantastic insights immediately.
Understanding ourselves takes time. 
Time involved
It is ideal to spend several hours reading about meditation, but it
isn't necessary. It will take a few minutes to select something to focus
on but the major time commitment is 30 minutes a day for at least
several weeks. 
Common problems
It is rare but a few people find meditating unpleasant; they may
feel afraid, overwhelmed or bored. In such cases, it is best to stop
meditating. Perhaps one should seek professional help to understand
this reaction. 
The biggest problem, as I see it, is the unwarranted promises
made by some meditation-yoga literature. Of course, for some people
the mystical purposes are their major reasons for practicing
meditation. One never knows if the results of meditation are due to (1)
these promises--like astrotravel, curing serious diseases, and spiritual
union with the cosmos--and placebo effects, (2) the philosophy of
acceptance and hope, or (3) the process of meditating. Perhaps it
doesn't matter, except to the researcher. 
Another problem is the dedication needed to persist day after day.
Your "mind" may at first resist and try to talk you out of meditating:
"there is so much to do," "you probably aren't meditating right," "it is
a waste of time," "you may think of something dreadful," etc. Continue
for a month before you decide if it is worthwhile. 
Effectiveness, advantages and danger
The method is as old as recorded history, so it has withstood the
test of time. It also illustrates the human tendency to avoid testing the
effectiveness of mystical processes. Recently, there have been more
scientific studies. In general, the combination of meditation, the
accompanying philosophy, and the suggestion-placebo effects seems
to yield these results: relaxation, better self-control and self-
evaluation, more confidence in self-control, reduction
("desensitization") of frightening ideas and concerns, and greater
awareness of internal and external stimuli (Shapiro & Zifferblatt,
1976). But... 
When David Holmes (1984) compared the effectiveness of
meditation with simple resting, he found no significant differences!
Subjects relaxed (as measured in several ways) equally well using
meditation or relaxation. Furthermore, experienced meditators became
just as physiologically aroused in stressful situations as did
nonmeditators. That is not shocking, except that meditators would like
to believe their method is best. There is no magic method. 
Meditation's long association and similarity with religion makes it
just as hard to evaluate as religion. The belief that meditation provides
a sense of oneness and communion with everything in the universe is
based on the beliefs and testimony of millions of Hindus and Buddhists
and other practitioners. How do you challenge that? Perhaps, the inner
peace and tolerance of all things, claimed by so many from meditation,
can be scientifically demonstrated eventually. (On the other hand, the
value of tolerance, when it is tolerance of ignorance, injustice and
problems, has to be questioned.) We, as a society, should demand
more hard evidence from our soft sciences. Like religion, the promise
of so much is both meditation's strength and its weakness. Just don't
expect it to cure physical diseases or provide long-distance messages.
These can be better accomplished by modern medicine and a
Additional readings
Bloomfield, H. H., Cain, D. T., & Jaffe, D. T. (1975). TM:
Discovering inner energy and overcoming stress. New York:
Forem, J. (1975). Transcendental Meditation. New York:
Goleman, D. (1991). The meditative mind. ??? Goleman also
has an audio cassette, The Art of Meditation. 
Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living. New York: Delta
Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994). Wherever you go, there you are. New
York: Hyperion. 
La Shan, L. (1975). How to meditate: A guide to self-discovery.
New York: Bantam. 
Lilly, J. (1973). The center of the cyclone. New York: Bantam. 
Ornstein, R. E. (1975). The psychology of consciousness.
Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books. 
Singh, R. (1996). Inner and outer peace through meditation.
Rockport, MA: Element. 
Tart, C. (1972). Altered states of consciousness. New York:
What is fear? In a simple sense, it is a connection between certain
neutral stimuli and an inappropriate emotional reaction (identified as
fear), such as a fear of heights or leaving home or public speaking etc.
Desensitization is a treatment procedure designed to break that
connection and replace the fear response to the situation with a
stronger relaxed response. It is also called counter-conditioning. Fear
is countered with calm relaxation, since you can't feel both fear and
calm at the same time. 
How is this done? Very gradually. You start with mildly scary
situations where a strong relaxed response might over-ride the weak
anxiety response. You imagine being in that slightly disturbing scene
while remaining very relaxed. You do this over and over, breaking the
connection with fear. Next, you do the same thing with a slightly more
scary situation. You continue this process until you can imagine
climbing a tower, leaving home, or speaking to a crowd without
experiencing strong fear. Then you are ready to handle reality (not
without some anxiety but without overwhelming fear). 
To relieve excessive, unreasonable or unneeded fears and
traumatic memories, such as a fear of heights, violence, war,
flying, the dark, bugs, public speaking, taking tests, meeting
people, asserting one's self, being away from home and many
other situations. 
To break the connection between any given situation and an
unwanted emotional response, e.g. to extinguish depression
or anger associated with a certain person or behavior or
situation. For instance, several students have used this method
to reduce their jealousy when a date or spouse attends to
another person. 
STEP ONE: Learn a method of relaxing
Deep-muscle relaxation is recommended, but any method that
works well for you is fine. Some therapists use drugs; self-hypnosis
(chapter 14) might be a good choice. You may find that a certain time
or place relaxes you, e.g. right after awakening, after exercising, or in
bed late at night. Thorough, strong relaxation is necessary because it
must over-ride the fear reaction. 
Recently, a new, rather strange sounding desensitization procedure
has been developed for use by professionals (Shapiro, 1995). Instead
of using relaxation, this method uses rapid eye movements (left and
right), much like what occurs with the eyes closed during dreams. The
therapist quickly moves his/her finger back and forth in front of the
client and the client follows the finger with his/her eyes. While moving
his/her eyes, the client also focuses his/her awareness on the
traumatic memory or scary scene... and he/she should also focus on
the physical bodily sensations associated with the fear or anxiety.
Rapid reduction of the fearful reactions are reported. In addition,
repressed traumas are sometimes uncovered and new positive feelings
about themelves are claimed by some clients after only an hour or two
of this process. More research of this procedure is needed but it is an
interesting finding (I expected it would go the way of Silva Mind
Control, EST Seminars, NLP eye movements, etc. but it hasn't yet; it
has strong supporters and critics.). 
Dr. Richmond provides detailed instructions for Systematic
similar to mine. At this page you can also find links to several other
self-help methods, such as Progressive Muscle Relaxation
prayer. We will use deep muscle relaxation in our example. 
STEP TWO: Study your fear response (or other emotional
Every time you have the unwanted emotional response, record
these five things: (a) the antecedents or situation prior to the
emotional response, (b) the feelings you have, e.g. fear or anger,
including the intensity on a scale of 0 to 99, (c) the thoughts you
have, (d) how you behave while experiencing the emotion, and (e) the
consequences of your response, i.e. how others react to you and what
the outcome usually is. This information has many uses: (a) and (b)
will be necessary in the next step when you rank order several scary
scenes, (c) is needed to know if your thoughts--misinformation or
misperceptions--might cause the emotions, (d) and (e) help you
determine if your emotional reaction is being reinforced by others. If
the emotional response doesn't occur very often, imagine what it is
like and make these ratings. 
Keep these records for a week or so, and then try to answer these
questions: Could I avoid these situations? If the emotion occurs in
many situations, what do they have in common (e.g. a fear of criticism
or losing control or looking dumb?) Could the emotions be based on
misconceptions? (Is the probability of rejection that high? Is the
teacher or boss that critical?) Could the emotions be yielding some
payoff? (Do fears keep me dependent and cared for? Does anger get
me my way?) These records provide some answers and a way of
measuring your progress in overcoming the fear. 
STEP THREE: Make a list of scary situations
Use the rating (a) and (b) above. For each fear, make a list (called
a hierarchy) of 10 to 20 scary situations that you have faced or might.
Start the list with a few very slightly disturbing situations or scenes. In
very small steps, add more scenes that arouse more and more fear or
anxiety (see samples below). Use a fear scale from 0 (not frightening
at all) to 100 (terrorizing) to rate each scene. The increase in rated
fear from one scene to the next in the hierarchy should be no greater
than 10 scale score units. It's important to conquer the fear one small
step at a time. It's also important to include realistic but scary scenes
at the frightening end of the list. Do not include scenes that involve
real dangers or consequences that would inevitably be disturbing, e.g.
if you are afraid of flying, do not include a scene where you burn up in
a fiery crash. If you are afraid of speaking to groups, do not imagine
the crowd becomes unruly, throws tomatoes and boos you off the
stage. Instead, include at the high end (rated about 75, not 99) scenes
of things you'd like to do if you were not afraid, such as flying safely
cross-country or successfully addressing a large audience. 
Several sample hierarchies are given below (Rosen, 1976). They
illustrate the kind of list you should develop for each specific fear but
they probably do not fit your situation accurately enough to be used as
they are. Example: suppose you are uncomfortable in social
gatherings. It is crucial that you know why you are scared--is it the
number of people? the type of people? the activities engaged in? the
topics of conversation? the drinks and drugs being offered? the way
you talk or act? the way you look? the way people look at you? what
you think they are thinking about you? The relevant factors need to be
included in your hierarchy (Rosen, 1976). 
Problem: Speaking to a familiar class--
Scary Scenes
Signing up for a class that requires presentations.
Hearing the instructor describe what is to be done in
our presentations.
Going to the library and preparing the talk--and
thinking about what I will say. Wondering if the
material I find will be of interest.
Watching others give their talk. Seeing that they are
Realizing the presentation is just a week away and
planning when to finish preparing and when to
Rehearsing the talk in my room in front of a mirror.
The notes are not well organized but I'm getting
I invite a friend over to hear my talk. He/she listens
intently and makes some suggestions.
Final practice the night before it is due. Three or four
friends come over and listen while I rehearse again. I
am a little bothered by their being there but I know
the speech pretty well.
Going into class--wondering if I will be called on first,
trying to keep my opening remarks in mind, and
hoping a fantastic speaker doesn't go right before me.
Sitting in class, waiting to be called on. Only partially
listening to what is being said by other presenters,
mostly thinking about what I will say.
The teacher calls on me, I walk up to the rostrum,
spread out my notes, make eye contact, see the
teacher smiling at me, and feel ready to start my talk.
I give the speech-I remember the opening lines, it is
going pretty well, occasionally I don't use exactly the
right words but it's OK. The class seems interested. I
finish and there is a little round of applause. They
smile and I sit down.
Naturally, one would want the ability to speak to groups to
generalize to other settings. So you might select scary scenes that
involve speaking up at social gatherings, handling a business meeting,
making a point at an intellectual discussion, challenging some point
made by a speaker, etc. If large audiences are a problem for you,
imagine addressing a class of 40, then 80, 120, etc. until you are
speaking to stadiums or to TV. If it is the nature of the audience that
bothers you, imagine addressing people from your home town, a group
of your teachers and professors, or a critical audience who asks you
lots of questions. 
Problem: Fear of flying
Scary Scene
Realizing I will have to fly some place.
Planning the flight, making reservations and asking for
a big plane.
Packing my bags on the morning of the flight.
Saying "good bye" to my wife and kids.
Playing down my concerns about flying to my wife but
being really afraid of a crash.
Driving to the airport and watching the planes come in
to land.
Going into the terminal and finding out the plane will
be 15 minutes late.
Waiting to board and seeing some questionable
characters waiting for the same plane.
Watching the plane taxi up to the boarding gate; looks
Getting on board and finding my seat near the front. 
Plane is backed away from terminal; it squeaks and
there is noise.
Plane starts on its own power; I know there is no
turning back.
Stewardess gives safety instructions; I try to find exits
and think about how I could get to one if there were a
Plane waits for take off; there is a loud roar and a
forward surge as it starts down the runway to take off.
Plane gains speed going down the runway; I see the
terminal out the window.
I can see the ground rapidly moving away as we gain
The plane enters some clouds; I know the pilot can't
see anything.
I have to get up to go to the bathroom; I have trouble
walking straight and it seems bumpy in the bathroom.
The pilot warns that there may be some turbulence
ahead and asks people to put on their seat belts; it
gets rough as we come in for a landing.
Problem: fear of social dating.
Scary Scene
I overhear a friend call someone for a date.
I ask this friend to describe what he/she did to prepare
for the phone call and the date. He/she tells me the
I am at a party with friends. Someone comes up and
starts a conversation with us. I ask this person a
question and he/she answers. I like his/her comment
and say, "That's a good point."
I am at a party with a group of friends. I get into an
extended conversation with someone. I wonder if I will
have anything to say; it turns out to be enjoyable.
I am at another party and get into an conversation
with someone attractive. At the end of the
conversation I ask this person if he/she would like to
go to a show with me.
I am at home and phone someone for a date. The
person says he/she is busy that evening but would like
to do something at another time.
same, but does not suggest getting together at
another time.
I call someone for a date and he/she asks me several
questions about my interests and my work before
agreeing to go out. I handled the questions all right.
I go to a party alone and try to make conversation. I'm
not trying to find a date, just making light social
conversation. Sometimes I don't know what to say but
they usually think of something when I can't.
I see someone at a party I'd like to meet. I go over
and introduce myself and find out about them. They
have a boy (girl) friend.
I call up a person I met in class and ask them to have
a coke some afternoon after class. He/she says that
would be nice.
I have a coke with this person and we talk about
school, home-town, interests, and so on. Then I ask
him/her to go to a concert with me the next weekend.
I have a whole evening with a date. We go out to eat,
then to a show. Later, we stop for a drink and I take
him/her home. The conversation goes OK.
Successful dating may not be just a matter of overcoming fears; it
is likely to involve many skills--approaching people, conversing, self-
disclosing, empathizing, knowing about current events, being able to
tolerate silence, having stories to tell, having a sense of humor, being
able to touch, etc. So, first identify the social skills needed, then
imagine rehearsing these new skills over and over, and finally try them
out in real life (see chapter 13). Usually, gaining skills reduces fears.
Clearly, reducing our fears frees us to use the skills we have. 
After you have constructed your hierarchy of increasingly scary
scenes, write each one on a 3 x 5 card. This way you can easily add a
scene if it is needed. Also, feel free to modify your scenes to make
them more realistic or easier to imagine--and to make them more or
less frightening. 
STEP FOUR: Shift back and forth between imagining the scary
scenes and relaxing
After learning to relax and making a hierarchy, you are ready to
replace fear with relaxation. Follow this procedure: 
Become deeply relaxed (using your preferred method). The task is
to have a stronger relaxed response than fear response while
imagining the scary scenes. So, if you start to feel tense anytime while
imagining the scenes, turn off the scene and go back to relaxing, then
continue. Place the 3 x 5 cards in order on your lap so you can easily
refer to them without disrupting your relaxation. 
The crux of the desensitization process is continuously (every 10-
30 seconds) shifting back and forth between (a) briefly imagining a
scary scene and (b) relaxing. The purpose is to stay thoroughly
relaxed while imagining the scenes; thus, breaking the situation-
fear connection. Example: visualize a scary scene for 10 to 30
seconds, whatever is comfortable for you. Then, go back to relaxing
and giving yourself relaxation instructions for 10 to 30 seconds. Then,
imagine the same scene again for 10 to 30 seconds, relax again,
imagine, relax, etc. until the scene no longer arouses anxiety. You are
ready to go on to the next scene. 
If you become tense while imagining the scenes, you will be
strengthening the situation-fear connection, so stop the fantasy and go
back to relaxing. If a scene consistently arouses anxiety, it is probably
too big a jump from the previous scenes or it is more scary than you
judged it to be. There are three things to do: go back and work on the
less-scary scenes more, add some less scary scenes that lead up to
this one, or this scene may be out of order and needs to be moved to
later in the hierarchy. 
After you have imagined a scene three consecutive times (10 to 30
seconds each) without experiencing anxiety, you can go on to the next
scene on the list. Imagine each scary scene as vividly as possible,
include details and realistic action. Visualize the situation exactly as it
is, picture the people involved, see clearly how you behave, etc. Hear,
feel and smell everything that is going on too. There are perhaps
thousands of stimuli associated with the unwanted fear response. Each
of these connections has to be broken. The more life-like you make
the imagined scene, the faster your fear of the real situation will be
Do desensitization for 30 minutes to one hour every other day or
1/2 hour every day in a quiet, private place. Start each new session by
repeating the most intense scene you imagined the last session and
then work up the hierarchy from there. Continue the method until you
can imagine all the scenes without feeling fear (or whatever feeling
you are extinguishing). 
STEP FIVE: Confront the real situation
What is important is how well you can handle the real life situation.
So, after desensitizing all the scary scenes, test your reaction in
reality. After imagining approaching people you find attractive, then be
sure to approach people in real life--start a conversation with someone
in your class, ask someone to go out, etc. Keep in mind, there is a lag,
often, between what you have done with ease in fantasy and what you
will be able to do easily in real life. But your anxiety should be reduced
by desensitization sufficiently that you can now handle the real
situations that previously frightened you away. Expose yourself to the
scary real situations over and over while relaxing as much as possible.
Soon you will have conquered your unreasonable fears. Keep
practicing your new skills. 
Keep in mind that fear is natural in many situations. You can't
eliminate it entirely. It may even be beneficial. Almost everyone feels
tense giving a speech (anxiety helps us prepare). Who doesn't feel a
tinge of fear when 40 or 50 feet above the ground? Who doesn't feel a
little jealous sometimes? The goal is not to remove all fears, just to
make them tolerable and to avoid being controlled by unreasonable
Time involved
Learning to relax may take two to five hours. Another one or two
hours for making up your own unique hierarchy. Some people get
results after only a few hours of desensitization; others require three
hours a week for a couple months. If you don't get results in that time,
see a professional. Don't expect instant cures; the professionals take
months too. Most fears have occurred many times in the same
situation, i.e. fear has been paired with a stimulus and/or reinforced
perhaps thousands of times. It isn't unreasonable to expect 1/10th as
many unlearning trials as were involved in the original learning, so if
you have gotten a little anxious in class a thousand times while
preparing to speak up (even if you didn't go through with it), it may
take 100+ fantasies of speaking without fear to extinguish the fear. 
It also takes time to "test out" the fears in real situations.
Sometimes the test situation is hard to arrange. A plane trip in rough
weather isn't easy to schedule. How often do you get to give a speech?
You will just have to wait until the real occasion arises. When it does,
prepare well and desensitize yourself again right before testing out
your reactions. At other times, the opportunity to test oneself is
readily available and can be done in a few minutes (like calling
someone for a date). 
Common problems
Several problems have already been mentioned: some people can't
relax, others have trouble fantasizing, some hierarchies have gaps
between items, sometimes actually dangerous or harmful scenes are
included at the end of the hierarchy. Some people are afraid of fear;
they worry and fret when they think about having fears and would
prefer to believe they have no concerns at all. 
Sometimes what appears to be the major fear is not the real
problem. Joseph Wolpe (1958) gave an example of a man who thought
he was afraid of open places who was really afraid of dying (and being
unable to get help). Another patient, who avoided all social interaction,
was basically afraid of being trapped in her marriage. These are
unusual cases, but it would be naive to assume that we are aware of
the true sources of all our fears. 
In step one, it was mentioned that some emotions are the result of
our thinking and expectations and misunderstandings. In these cases,
our thoughts and views need to be corrected (Burns, 1980, for
depression). Other emotions yield payoffs; it is unlikely that
desensitization will extinguish an emotional response that is being
highly reinforced, such as one person's jealousy that keeps his/her
partner from associating with any attractive competitors. You may
have to give up the payoffs first. 
Desensitization is not a fast cure. It takes hours spread over weeks
or months. And in the end you have to do whatever you are afraid of--
fly in a plane, ride in an elevator, give a speech, ask for a date, etc.
That involves some stress, so why not just "bite the bullet" and
immediately do what you are afraid of doing? For some people
confronting the fear (method #6) would be more efficient but for many
it seems impossible to do without the aid of a method like
Lastly, there is some evidence that body chemistry is involved in
some fears, especially agoraphobia (fear of being away from home)
which is difficult to treat. Fortunately, tricyclic antidepressants are
effective in preventing the panic reactions of some people with
agoraphobia, so that 1/3 do not need psychotherapy or
desensitization. Yet, even if biochemical factors are involved,
desensitization claims an 85% cure rate with agoraphobia (Salholz,
Namuth, Zabarsky, Junkin, & Jackson, 1984). 
Effectiveness, advantages and dangers
Extensive research during the last 20 to 25 years has generally
documented the effectiveness of desensitization. Wolpe originally
reported 90% effectiveness but later results have not been quite so
positive. Psychologists do not know exactly how it works. There is
clearly a strong suggestion effect built into the method. And, some
experiments have found powerful placebo effects (suggestion effects)
to be as effective in reducing fears as desensitization. 
Since it emphasizes relaxation, desensitization is excellent for
people who hate pain and stress. It is painless. Another advantage is
that the procedures are simple and easily understood. As mentioned in
chapter 5, self-desensitization has been reported to be more effective
than therapist administered desensitization. It is a lot cheaper. There
are no known dangers. 
Additional reading
Fensterheim, H.& Baer, J. (1978). Stop running scared. New
York: Dell. 
Forgione, A. G. & Bauer, F. M. (1980). Fearless flying: The
complete program for relaxed air travel. New York: Houghton
Rosen, G. (1976). Don't be afraid: A program for overcoming
your fears and phobias. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Sutherland, E. A., Amit, Z., & Weiner, A. (1978). Phobia free:
How to fight your fears. New York: Jove.
Shapiro, F. (1995). Eye Movement Desensitization and
Reprocessing: Basic principles, protocols and procedures. New
York: Guilford Publications. 
Watson, D. & Tharp, R. (1972). Self-directed behavior: Self-
modification for personal adjustment. Monterey, CA:
Brooks/Cole Publishing Co. 
Wenrich, W. W., Dawley, H. & General, D. (1976). Self-directed
systematic desensitization. Kalamazoo, MI: Behaviordelia.
Wolpe, J. (1974). The practice of behavior therapy. New York:
Pergamon Press. 
Zimbardo, P. G. & Radl, S. (1979). The shyness workbook. New
York: A & W Publishers. 
Case illustration
In the middle 1960's, I started giving my psychotherapy patients
little lecturettes about how to help themselves with rewards,
desensitization, etc. One of these clients was a graduate student in
zoology who had a fear of heights. The fear was life-long and, indeed,
it was a family trait. She was so bright and motivated that I explained
the idea of desensitization (or counter-conditioning) to her in 10
minutes or so. She immediately understood the concept and thought
she could use it on her own. Her fear had restricted her a lot: she
couldn't walk up a fire escape or climb a ladder. It was stressful to
look out of windows above the first floor, ride an elevator, and fly.
Most difficult were climbing towers and walking on boat docks one can
see through. 
By the next session one week later, she had been relaxing and
imagining climbing the fire escape in her dorm. As soon as she could
imagine climbing half a flight of stairs without being tense, she
immediately went out to the fire escape and did it! During that week
she had climbed up one and a half flights. She felt fantastic about her
accomplishment. By the end of the second week, she was climbing the
fire escape to a friend's room on the fifth floor and looking out her
window! These accomplishments were not easy for her but she
became confident she could do it. She was delighted with herself--and
with desensitization. 
The third week was spring break and she was going to Florida.
Before going, she imagined walking on docks while relaxing. She came
back gleeful; she had walked on and looked through every dock she
could find in Florida. She was also writing all her relatives about how
to overcome their fears of heights. She hadn't done desensitization
exactly like the textbooks say but she grabbed the idea and ran with
it. She changed herself...and she changed me too (I became much
more interested in self-help). 
Self-desensitization in the real situation (in vivo)
Keep yourself calm and very gradually approach the stressful
situation. Get a friend to provide support. Relax before the
confrontation and during it as much as possible. The objective is to
extinguish the unreasonable fear response by replacing it with a more
relaxed response. To do this, you need a hierarchy of real situations
involving increasing stresses. The rationale for in vivo is the same as
systematic desensitization (method #4). 
To reduce the unwanted fears and stresses associated with
many situations where the fear is excessive or unreasonable. 
To enable you to handle scary situations better and with less
emotional stress. 
The procedures are the same as in the last method, except that
here you use real situations, not imagined scenes. Refer to the last
method for detailed instructions. 
STEP ONE: List the stressful situations in order of scariness
Describe several situations related to your fear on separate 3 x 5
cards. List only situations that are readily available to you, e.g. asking
questions in class if you are a phonophobic student (whereas flying
cross-country several times might be expensive treatment for an
aerophobiac). Arrange 10 or 15 of the situations in order from least
scary to most scary. For example, if you wanted to ask a special
someone for a date, you might first (1) talk with a friend about asking
this person out, (2) ask this friend to help you plan the date, (3) ask
another friend to role-play the situation in which you practice
approaching this special person, (4) talk to the special person without
asking him/her out, and so on. 
There are other ways to gradually approach a real situation: (1)
look at a picture of a scary situation (or imagine it) instead of actually
being there, (2) look at the scary situation, such as a tower or animal,
from a distance and gradually approach it, (3) take a supportive friend
along, (4) shorten the amount of time spent in the scary situation, and
(5) approach smaller or less scary versions of the thing you fear
(examples: approach less attractive males/females before the
beautiful ones or buy a puppy if afraid of big dogs). 
STEP TWO: Develop an emotion incompatible with fear
You need some emotion to counter the fear, usually relaxation but
perhaps fatigue or anger or assertiveness. The relaxation techniques
given earlier will do fine. Recently, it has been reported that fatigue,
e.g. immediately after jogging your limit, is incompatible with fear,
just as relaxation is. So the person with a fear of elevators might run
three miles first and end up jogging into the elevator. An assertive
attitude, such as "I won't let them push me around any more," can
counter fear. 
STEP THREE: Confront the scary situations starting with a very
mildly stressful one
Place yourself in the least frightening situation on your 3 x 5 cards
and remain as relaxed as possible. Stay in the situation or repeat it
over and over until you are entirely unafraid. Work your way through
the list until you can handle the most scary situation well. It might be
helpful to record and reward your progress. 
Time involved
The time depends on availability of the situations. If actual
circumstances seem impossible to arrange, you always have your
imagination (method #4). 
Common problems
Many real life situations just aren't available at the right time.
Sometimes it is hard to arrange actual situations close enough
together in scariness that you can move on easily to the next
situation. In these cases, use some of the suggestions in step one
above or use imagined scenes instead of real situations to fill in the
Effectiveness, advantages and dangers
Watson and Tharp (1972) gave three reasons why in vivo
desensitization may be better than fantasized scenes: (1) the actual
behavior change is what is important--the real-life problems eventually
have to be faced anyway, (2) imagined scenes are not as complete
and realistic as the real thing, thus, it takes longer to extinguish the
fear, and (3) often effective coping with the situation requires more
than removal of fears. Watson and Tharp cite a case of a shy young
woman who reduced her fear of men via desensitization but had not
learned how to converse, how to handle their advances, or how to
handle her other emotions besides fear. With in vivo desensitization
the social skills are, hopefully, being learned as the fears are reduced. 
There are no known scientific evaluations of in vivo self-
desensitization. Of course, the method has been used many times in
therapy and described in case studies. Throughout history, people
have learned as much as possible about the things they fear as a way
of conquering the phobias. A famous case is Johann Wolfgang Von
Goethe, one of the world's greatest minds--a poet, author and
philosopher. Goethe was born into wealth and became a good student
but a restless, sexually active playboy in 1765-70. During this time, he
became seriously ill and was treated at home for a year. Following this
illness, he became obsessed with fears of having "diseased organs."
He decided to study medicine as a means of overcoming his morbid
fears. Goethe's greatest work, Faust, tells of a man striving for
complete knowledge of life in all its forms. Faust is torn between the
devil, who provides him with many life experiences, and God.
Eventually, God saves Faust from the devil, partly because Faust
continually sought self-improvement in the hopes of becoming perfect. 
There are no known dangers except the stress you might feel if
you proceed too rapidly. Of course, you should never do anything
dangerous in an effort to overcome a fear. We are talking only about
overcoming unreasonable fears, not realistic fears. 
Additional reading
Watson, D. & Tharp, R. (1972). Self-directed behavior 
Exposure to the fear (flooding)
There are two ideas involved. First is the idea that irrational fears
grow stronger whenever we run away from the scary-but-not-
dangerous situation. Second is the idea that we can change our
attitude from, "I can't stand the stress" to "I can stand it." Putting
these ideas together, the method is to gradually approach the
frightening situation with a strong determination to take all the fear it
can generate. 
The most thorough description of this method and its application is by Jeffers (1987).
To quickly deal with excessive fears and anxieties in any scary
situation that cannot hurt you. 
STEP ONE: Arrange for plenty of time and a supportive friend, if
needed, to help you
You should have at least two hours, perhaps all day. Select a friend
who is sympathetic and encouraging, who can cheer you on and give
advice like a coach. Besides, if the fears should become extremely
intense, you need a dependable friend there in case you start to feel
overwhelmed (not likely but be prepared). 
STEP TWO: Expose yourself to the scary situation
Approach the scary situation. If you can go all the way at first,
then do it and stay in the situation until the fear declines. If you can't
stand to go all the way at first, get as close as you can stand, wait
until the fear declines at that point, and then advance a little further as
you can tolerate it. Example: if you are afraid of elevators, perhaps
you can just get on and ride all day until the fear subsides. If you can't
get on it and ride immediately, you can stand outside it, then stand on
it without going up or down, then go only one floor, etc. 
STEP THREE: Experience the fear completely until it loses its
The use of this method has gone different directions over the
years. In this step I used to say: If needed hold your friend's hand,
but approach the frightening situation so that the fear is intense. Don't
try to reduce the fear, rather try to experience the fear fully. Tell
yourself you want to feel it, not run away. Focus on the fear, not on
the situation and not on your urge to run. Concentrate on your
physical reactions (shaking, sweating, rapid heart beat, etc.) and on
your thoughts about all the awful things that might happen. Recognize
how unrealistic the thoughts and fears are. 
Try to arouse the fear to its full fury, study it (telling yourself you
can stand more), and challenge it to become even more intense.
Welcome it. Be determined to stay right there as long as it takes to
overpower and shrink the fear response. The fear will decline after
some time, maybe after a couple hours or maybe after 6 or 8 hours
(probably not that long). 
Today, exposure has become a much more common approach
because it is a very simple and effective way to reduce certain fears.
But there is less emphasis on the need in most cases to arouse
extreme fear. Just getting people to gradually expose themselves to
heights or bugs or large (friendly) dogs or asking questions in
meetings or public speaking may be all one needs to do. One reason
for this change in approach is because commercial airlines and other
businesses would like to help people get more comfortable using their
products. In those cases arousing intense fear and having horrible
fantasies are not desirable or acceptable. Some airlines provide a
instructional/informational approach giving explanations of the physics
of flying, the causes and consequences of turbulence, the reasons for
certain flight instructions and noises, the facts about airline safety, etc.
All of which arouse many fantasies of flying. Other approaches simply
expose potential flying customers over and over to various scenes
(sights and sounds) they will encounter in flight. There are several
impressive efforts to use computer-assisted instruction and videos to
expose flight phobic people to scary situations until the anxiety
responses are acceptable (Bornas, Tortella-Feliu, Llabrs & Fullana,
Many fears may involve situations you can not create, so you will
need to use your imagination. Examples: speaking to large crowds or
auto accidents or fires or a death. Pictures can be used to augment
your fantasy. You have a choice to make the fantasies as scary as
possible (as mentioned above and in implosive therapy--see method
#10) or you can simply confront (in reality or in fantasy) the situations
that make you uncomfortable until you are fairly comfortable.
However, it seems clear to most of us that viewing a picture of the
inside of a plane or of a street far below the balcony railing is not the
same as being there. Likewise, imagining giving a speech is not the
same as doing it. So your fantasies may need to approach reality fairly
closely. This is the rationale for including scary scenes and distressing
consequences, like a speaker being rejected by the audience, losing
esteem in the eyes of the listeners, being rejected, questioned, and
walked out on. Continue the fantasies until the anxiety is lowered to
tolerable levels. The alternative would be to imagine over and over
giving the speach and doing fairly well. I don't think we know which
approach works best or when. In either case, when appropriate (and
fairly promptly), you have to expose yourself to the real-but-not-
dangerous situation until you can conquer the fear in real life. 
STEP FOUR: Continue the exposure continuously until the fear is
Don't give up. Don't be intimidated by the fear. Repeatedly have
the experience if a few exposures are not enough (don't forget you
may need new skills to become comfortable--relaxed dancers must
learn how to dance; confident speakers must know what to say). Also,
continue to have the experience occasionally, otherwise the fear may
Time involved
Possibly a total of 10 to 15 hours. It will take an hour or two for
the fear to subside the first time, maybe much longer. Then the
experience needs to be repeated. 
Common problems
The most common problem is that people do not want to suffer the
stress, in which case they could use desensitization. This method is
only appropriate when there is a specific and available scary situation.
Vague generalized anxiety doesn't involve a specific scary situation to
Effectiveness, advantages and dangers
Several researchers (Gelder, 1976; MacLean and Graff, 1970;
Olson, 1975) have found this method to be generally effective--also
see references above and under fear and panic in chapter 5. The major
advantage of the method is its speed. Another possible advantage is
the self-esteem, the feeling of strength one might gain during the
process. The major danger is, if during the exposure, the stress
becomes too great and you give up. If the fear over-whelms you, you
will be strengthening the fear response and weakening your self-
confidence. There are probably some mild risks in the opposite
direction, namely, of exposing yourself to various mildly scary scenes
but never getting to the point of extinguishing the unwanted intense
fear responses. This could actually strengthen your fear somewhat.
Another danger is using the method where real dangers exist, like
jumping into water over your head or confronting a bully or a
vindictive boss. Don't do these things. We are only reducing unrealistic
fears. Be careful, take no real risks. 
Additional readings
Gelder, M. (1976). Flooding. In T. Thompson & W. Dockens
(Eds.), Applications of behavior modification. New York:
Academic Press. 
Olsen, P. (1975). Emotional flooding. Baltimore, MD: Penguin
Stress-inoculation: Self-instructions and coping imagery
Stress-inoculation involves gaining awareness of why we get upset.
Then we learn ways to control our emotions, e.g. through self-
instructions and rational thinking and by changing our attitudes and
expectations. Finally, by imagining being in the stressful situation over
and over, we can practice calming ourselves down with these self-help
methods. Later, we use these same self-instructions and techniques to
stay calm in the real situation. In short, we use our reasoning power
and imagination to reduce our unwanted emotional responses. 
This method combines several cognitive techniques into a complex
treatment program which is useful with several emotions in many
situations. Meichenbaum (1985) is the originator and principle
To devise ways of coping with your stressful emotions, such as
fears, anxiety, worries, sadness, anger, jealousy, guilt,
shyness, self-criticism or almost any other emotion. Fear and
anger are the most common emotions dealt with. 
To learn how to deal with one emotion experienced in many
different stressful circumstances which you expect to face in
the near future, including family, school, work, friends and so
on. In this case you might list 15 or 20 situations that upset
you, arranged from mild to intense stress or anger or
submissiveness. Then learn to deal with the mildest first and
work down the list, as in desensitization (method #4). 
To learn how to deal with a specific emotional situation, usually
a scary or irritating one. Several case illustrations are given. 
STEP ONE: Plan how to reduce the unwanted emotion by using
thoughts, imagination, and self-instructions
This first step is an educational process: learning a variety of
mental processes that can influence emotions. Cognitive theory
emphasizes that emotions reflect how we appraise the situation, our
expectations, our beliefs about others' motives and our interpretation
of our physiological reactions, i.e. our thoughts determine our feelings.
We need to understand this in detail. 
Learn about Rational-Emotive Therapy (RET) and challenging
irrational ideas (see method #3 in chapter 14). Ideas can produce
emotions; changing our thinking (these ideas) can change our
emotions. Consider these examples of how our ideas, automatic
thoughts, attributions, conclusions, judgments, beliefs and self-
statements can create anger within us: (remember these are not
examples of things really said to another person; they are thoughts
you might have about another person.) 
Intolerant thoughts--"I hate pushy people...stupid
workers...stuck up people." More reasonable--"I understand
High expectations--"This person (thoughts about a child, an
employee, a student,...) should have known better...worked
harder...been honest about it." More reasonable--"Sorry it
worked out this way; can I help this person do better?" 
Punitive beliefs--"That was such an awful thing this person did,
I feel like beating up on him/her...firing him/her...telling
everyone." More reasonable--"I know this person had reasons
for what he/she did, but can I help make sure it never happens
Wounded pride thinking--"Your spreading gossip about me
really hurt, I'm going to tell everyone what a nasty person you
are." More reasonable--"I felt hurt and betrayed, but I can
handle that." 
Anger-producing, put-down, automatic thoughts--"You're
deliberately being mean...who the hell do you think you
are...you're a creep...you don't give a damn about me." Also,
thinking of how you would like to hurt the other person only
makes you more angry and irrational. More reasonable--"I'm
making myself angry and unhappy; let's find a solution or avoid
each other." 
Many of our irrational emotion-causing thoughts are "shoulds"--"I
should do better," "They should be better," "They should not treat me
that way," "Things should not be this way," "They should be
punished," and so on. These ideas reflect our own unfulfilled
expectations; often they are our dreams or hopes that were never
reasonable or carefully cultivated. Irrational ideas can be changed to
be reasonable (see method #3 in chapter 14). 
Learn to think logically. Our thinking is distorted in many ways
(see method #8 in chapter 14). We often draw false conclusions about
ourselves or others. We misunderstand the implications of someone's
behavior; we misinterpret other peoples' comments; we make false
assumptions about what people are thinking and feeling. Examples:
Someone turns us down for a date and we conclude that most people
would not want to go out with us. We are used and deceived by
someone of the opposite sex and we conclude that all men/women are
self-serving creeps. We are turned down after interviewing for seven
different jobs and we conclude that there are no jobs to be had, that
employers are prejudiced against us, or that there is nothing we can
do to improve our chances of being selected. Our spouse hasn't been
affectionate and we conclude that he/she is interested in someone
else. In short, when we have negative expectations, we should ask
ourselves "What is the evidence?" and "Is there another way to
interpret that data?" As we saw in chapter 9, the best way to check
our assumptions about how others are feeling and thinking is to ask
Learn to think like a determinist. So far as anyone knows,
everything has its causes. Just as the laws of physics and chemistry
describe the physical world, the laws of behavior describe the animal
world. Every action, every feeling, every thought, so far as we know,
has a cause--it is lawfully determined, even our "free will" and our
"free choices." We can learn to accept our and others' behavior as
being lawful, i.e. the natural, inevitable outcome of earlier events (see
method 4 in chapter 14). We can't change the causes of the past and
present; "it's water over the dam;" we may be able to change the
causes of future events. It is on these logical grounds that a person
can come to accept him/herself and others, to be tolerant of the past
and hopeful to improve in the future. 
Learn to be a hopeful self-helper. Believe you can change the
unwanted emotions. Avoid defeatism. Avoid catastrophizing--ask
yourself, "What is the worst that could happen? Would that be the end
of the world?" Be optimistic--ask yourself, "Life is a lemon right now,
how can I make lemonade out of it?" or "What would a super well
adjusted person in my situation say to themselves and do?" Think big.
Think positive. Use your problem-solving and assertiveness skills
(chapters 2 and 13) to plan several ways of changing the unwanted
Learn to give self-instructions to control your own behavior and
emotions. This includes self-directions and advice about how to
accomplish the task at hand (see method 2 in chapter 11). It also
includes self-help techniques for relaxing and controlling other
unwanted emotions (see methods in this chapter). For example, as our
body tenses up, if we interpret this reaction as anger or fear, we will
"feel" these emotions immediately and more intensely. On the other
hand, if we learn (by practicing over and over) to interpret tension as
simply a signal to relax, we can avoid unnecessary anger and
excessive fear. 
Many of us feel bad because we say negative statements to
ourselves: "I'm going to mess it up...it will never work out...he/she
won't like me...he/she is so selfish...they make me furious...I can't
stand...." These thoughts are our negative interpretations of other
peoples' behavior and intentions, of sensations inside our own body, of
our own behavior and situation. Our thoughts could be positive instead
and relax us, energize us, lead us wisely, give us hope, etc. Several
Cognitive-Behavioral therapists have listed many coping self-
Preparing to meet a stressful situation 
"I can handle this. I've practiced." 
"I'm OK once I get started. I'll jump right in." 
"Don't let the negative thoughts get you down." 
"Relax and remember your plan." 
Confronting the situation 
"Do one step at a time. It will work out." 
"If I start to feel up tight, I can relax." 
"Focus on the task at hand, not on the fear." 
"It's OK to make a mistake. I'll do my best." 
Handling the emotions 
"Take a second to breathe deeply and think about what
to do next." 
"Don't get too mad (frightened, passive)." 
"I'm going to stand up for my rights now." 
"Stay calm, it will be over soon." 
Enjoy the success 
"I did it!" 
"I can handle my feelings. I can relax away fear (anger,
dependency, crying)." 
"Next time it will be easier." 
Make up your own list of coping statements. Repeat them over and
over to yourself and say them with feeling, so they do not seem
foreign to you when you use them under stress. 
The essence of this "stress inoculation" method is the development
of self-instructions that we can use in stressful situations to calm us
down and make us more effective. The above methods and attitudes--
RET, logical reasoning, determinism, optimism, self-instructions, and
anything else that will work--can be utilized in the coping self-
instructions developed by you for your specific situation in step three.
But, first, you must be aware of your specific feelings in specific
situations and your thoughts and attitudes that contribute to those
STEP TWO: Run a mental movie of the emotion-arousing
situation(s). What are your feelings? What are your thoughts?
In fantasy, re-live the stressful experience(s). Do this over and
over, if needed. First, focus on your feelings and try to identify all the
emotions you are having. There's probably more than one. What are
the first signs of the unwanted emotion? (Use these as signals to
relax.) Then, see if you can discover the ideas, automatic thoughts or
beliefs you have that create or intensify your unwanted feelings. Ask
yourself if you have possibly drawn false conclusions. Check to see if
your attitudes are non-accepting of others or of yourself. Did you label
other people as bad? Are you pessimistic and/or overly quick to
conclude that there is nothing you can do about the situation? 
The general idea is to understand the causes and sources of your
feelings (not the external causes but your own thoughts and attitudes
and false conclusions that cause or intensify emotions). 
If you need to reduce your anxiety or anger, you should, at this
point, make up a hierarchy of common situations you encounter that
are associated with these emotions. See desensitization (method # 4)
for instructions about how to rate these scenes. If you are dealing with
only one situation, go on to step three. 
STEP THREE: Figure out better things to say to yourself; learn
attitudes and self-instructions that will control your unwanted
As you have gained awareness of your irrational ideas and false
conclusions that generate your unwanted emotions, you have
undoubtedly thought of some more reasonable ideas and attitudes to
have. These positive, rational ideas and decisions are not adopted by
our minds immediately; you have to reason out the ideas and double
check the conclusions. You have to carefully control and consciously
change your thinking. You have to constantly monitor your thinking for
days or weeks. Changing from being illogical to logical is not an easy,
automatic process. Specifically, you are looking for rational ideas to
replace irrational ones, for valid conclusions instead of faulty ones, and
for positive attitudes that can replace detrimental ones. You must
learn new self-instructions that will help you stay in control of your
emotions. Let's consider several illustrations. 
Suppose you have a roommate who drives you up a wall by using
and breaking your things, playing loud music, talking on and on about
boring topics and neglecting his/her share of the cleaning and cooking.
In step two above, you recognized your anger and your fear of the
roommate's resentment of being confronted. In this step, you are
looking for solutions. For instance, you wonder if you would be less
irritated if you borrowed just as much from him/her. You wonder why
the music and topics upset you: is it because you think these things
prove he/she is an inconsiderate jerk who should be punished? Is that
a valid conclusion if he/she thinks you like loud music and the topics?
You wonder if you can reduce your anger: Can you tune the
disruptions out or avoid the irritating behavior? Can you imagine the
roommate being much worse and, thus, develop a tolerance for what
he/she is? Can you go beat on the bed and get the anger out? Can you
learn to like the music and topics? You wonder if the situation can be
changed: Can you tell him/her how you feel and ask for changes? You
try to imagine how these various approaches would work out. 
Suppose after considering many alternatives you decide to
confront the roommate. You expect tempers to flare but want to keep
your anger under control and you want to get results. Here are some
self-instructions that could replace irrational ideas and add some self-
control at four stages typical of any angry conflict: 
First stage--preparing for a conflict 
"I know how to handle these kind of situations. I have a
good plan." 
"Remember, other people don't upset me, I upset
myself with my own thoughts." 
Second stage--facing the adversary 
"Don't get upset, stay in control of my emotions." 
"If I start to get angry, I'll try relaxing and checking out
my irrational ideas...I can do it." 
"I'm trying to get a solution, rather than get even." 
"I'm going to give it a try, right now." 
Third stage--handling your anger if it flares 
"OK, I'm getting up tight, relax and take a deep breath." 
"I can't just demand that other people be the way I
want them to be, I have to show them good reasons for
"If I just understood this person--his/her past, his/her
pain, his/her hopes--I'd realize why he/she is this way." 
"Take it slow and easy but firm; he/she will see my
"Express your feelings and preferences clearly; be
Fourth stage--after it's over 
"I did well! I avoided getting into a big fight and we
came to a solution." 
"I'm proud of myself, I handled that without losing my
Keep in mind that these self-instructions are not nearly all you
would be saying to yourself. They are new additions to handle your
anger and fear of the roommate's reactions during the confrontation.
You still have to explain to the person what behavior you don't like and
the changes you would like to see made (and what rewards and other
consequences depend on the outcome). As you can see, there are
many alternatives. In the past, you may not have seen all your
choices. You may have acted impulsively. You may still be inclined to
act on old habits. Yet, you could make choices. 
Let's consider another example. Suppose you have just had an
argument with your boy/girlfriend. You are afraid that he/she might
stop going with you. The two of you have been going together two
years; you have been close; you have loved each other; you have
talked about getting married. It is crushing to think of breaking up,
you feel panicky. You consider your alternatives. You wonder what you
could say to smooth over the argument and how to get him/her to talk
about it some more. Let's suppose he/she doesn't want to talk. He/she
seems to want to break up. You wonder how you could ever stand
losing him/her; it is so painful to think of all your life plans crumbling.
What can you do to make it more bearable? Here are some self-
instructions that might replace the awful catastrophizing: 
First stage--we might break up 
"I hope it doesn't happen but I'm a survivor." 
Second stage--it's definite, the relationship is over 
"It hurts so bad, but I'll be over it in a month if I don't
drag it out."
"I'd like to beg him/her to come back, but that would
just prolong the agony."
"I'll do some things with friends to forget (not talk about
breaking up)."
"I've been wanting to go traveling, now is a good time." 
Third stage--this is the worst two or three weeks of my life 
"I have really hurt, but I'm glad I can love so deeply. I'd
do it again."
"I'm proud I can do so many things alone. It feels good
not to be dependent and tied to a partner. It's important
I stay independent."
"I'll make plans to take another evening course; it keeps
me up-to-date and sharp."
"Just hang in there a couple more weeks and the pain
will go away." 
Fourth stage--I've got to get out of the dumps 
"I'm going to learn from the last relationship so I can
make the next one even better." 
"Where and how am I going to find a good partner? I'll
make some plans." 
"I'm really glad I can handle being alone but I'm going
to ask _____ for a date." 
I'm only suggesting that breaking up can be made less stressful,
less depressing, less lonely, depending on how you view it (see
chapters 6 and 8). There is no way to avoid all the pain. 
STEP FOUR: Play the movie again. Use the self-help methods
(developed in step three) to prevent or to reduce the unwanted
You can, in effect, test out the emotion-control methods by
imagining being in the upsetting scene. After arousing the unwanted
emotions by thinking about being angry at your roommate or being
hurt by rejection, you "talk yourself down." Use the relaxation
techniques, deep breathing, self-instructions, and new attitudes to
avoid getting upset, to calm down, or to resolve the problem. 
Repeat this mental process (the movie of the situation) over and
over, discovering which methods work best for you. Keep rehearsing
until you are sure you can control your feelings and handle the
situation. Example: suppose you are a college sophomore who has
never done well on objective examinations. You seem to "clutch up" or
freeze; you just don't think well although you have studied and seem
to know the material. So, before the exam, you might say: 
"I have studied more than a lot of people. I should do pretty
"Try to relax now and during the exam--take a deep breath and
enjoy the relaxation as I exhale." 
It is easy for you to imagine taking an exam, reading a hard
question, coming up with a blank, and thinking "I'm going to flunk this
test" with a sinking, panicky feeling inside because it has happened so
many times during a test before. Your palms sweat; you feel scared;
you are embarrassed. As you imagine feeling these things, start giving
yourself self-instructions to lower your anxiety, to get you back on
track and go on with the exam: 
"I'll just mark this item and come back to it later. I want to stay
"Just because I didn't know that answer immediately doesn't
mean I'll fail. Lots of people probably clutched on it too." 
"OK, what's the answer to the next question? It's not a or c,
and b says 'always', and besides d sounds right, it's d!" 
"I'm getting along pretty well. If I just stay relaxed, I'm going
to feel good about myself." 
"I'll make an outline for the essay question; maybe reading
some more objective questions will help me remember more
little details about authors and research to include in the
"Stay relaxed, it will come to you. You are doing well. Go back
and read the hard questions again." 
After handling the fantasy-induced stress, take a break, relax,
praise your efforts and map out a strategy for the next trial run. Keep
repeating the fantasies until you are able to control the emotions. 
STEP FIVE: Try out the methods that have worked best in
fantasy about a real situation
Prepare well but don't procrastinate. One is never thoroughly
prepared. Also, remember, you can always sing better in the shower
than on stage. Likewise, you can handle emotions better in fantasy
than in reality. So, don't expect perfect control of your emotions. But
you will do better than if you had no practice or preplanning at all. Use
these new techniques the first chance you get. 
There are two basic procedures at this stage of stress-inoculation:
(1) you may have learned (in fantasy) to control your emotional
response and need the situation to remain the same so you can
practice your self-control in real life. Examples: if you had practiced
liking loud music and certain topics, your goal is to change yourself
and not your roommate. So, you would want him/her to remain the
same (in those ways) and you need practice learning to enjoy the new
music and topics. Likewise, suppose you have a choice of tolerating
your parents' political views, prejudiced attitudes, and insistence on
"no messes" (all of which drive you crazy) or of getting out of their
house. Some therapists would say you shouldn't leave home until you
had learned to tolerate those conditions without getting "bent out of
shape." These situations require self-change. 
(2) In other cases, stress-inoculation results in your controlling
your emotions but still wanting the situation to change, like asking the
roommate to change his/her behavior. There are several factors to
consider when handling a situation where one or both people are prone
to get angry: please refer to several skills in chapter 13, especially
assertiveness, expressing anger and fair fighting, and the "no lose"
negotiation method. 
Practice handling your emotions repeatedly as new situations arise.
See how well the new self-instructions, attitudes, and expectations
work for you. Make changes in your approach to handling unwanted
emotions as the situation changes and as you learn more and more
about self-control. Expose yourself repeatedly to emotional situations
until there is no doubt that you are in control. 
Time involved
Review chapter 5, 6, 7, or 8, whichever is most related to the
unwanted emotion you are working on. This will take an hour or two.
The amount of additional time needed depends a great deal on how
many techniques and concepts one attempts to learn and apply. If one
just uses relaxation and self-instructions to reduce stress, then step
one will be brief. If one tries to get insight into their negative thinking
and learns many cognitive emotion-control methods, it may take many
hours. Likewise, it will take much longer to deal with a 20-item
hierarchy than to deal with one situation. The practicing of emotional
control in fantasy may take 2 to 10 hours and about the same time for
practicing in real life situations. Total= 6 to 25 hours or more spread
over several weeks. Actually, it is unending because rational thinking
and self-instructions will stay with you forever. 
Common problems
Some people have great difficulty believing they are responsible for
their emotions. Other people like to be emotional; they feel it is "real"
and being controlled is phony. (No doubt many of us are loaded with
intense, usually unreasonable emotions; yet, spewing our vile
emotions on others is not healthy or considerate, although it may be
real.) Still other people can't imagine fantasies vivid enough to arouse
the unwanted emotions. And some have trouble fantasizing how
different techniques will work out. 
If the emotions are too unpleasant to voluntarily experience, start
with less intense emotions in an hierarchy or seek therapy. 
Effectiveness, advantages and dangers
This method is only 20 years old or so. It is part of "Cognitive
Behavioral Modification" and has been empirically tested several times.
The results are promising, suggesting about the same effectiveness as
desensitization. To the extent that our emotions are a product of how
we think, this method seems reasonable. Remember, some theorists
believe thoughts are independent of emotions. (I believe some
emotions are generated by our thoughts and fantasies, but other
emotions are automatic, conditioned responses and still others are
socially learned or lead to a pay off. I further suspect that still other
feelings are hormonal and genetic.) This method is well worth a try. 
Any method that uses imagination has the advantage of being
convenient--it's always available. It probably takes no more time to
think positively about a problem than would be spent in the natural
course of events thinking negatively about the situation. 
A possible danger is strengthening the unwanted emotional
response to the situation by producing the emotion over and over
again using fantasy. Just as naturally occurs, we become obsessed
with an upsetting or angering situation and the emotion grows as we
think about it (see chapter 7). Yet, the use of cognitive methods and
reasoning to reduce the emotions offers considerable hope for effective
Additional readings
Mahoney, M. (1974). Cognition and behavior modification.
Cambridge, Mass: Ballinger Publishing Co. 
McKay, M., Davis, M. & Fanning, P. (1981). Thoughts &
feelings: The art of cognitive stress intervention. Richmond,
CA: New Harbinger Publications. 
Meichenbaum, D. (1974). Cognitive behavior modification.
Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press. 
Navaco, R. (1975). Anger control: The development and
evaluation of an experimental treatment. Lexington, Mass.:
Lexington Books. 
Getting It Off Your Chest
One of Freud's great contributions was his emphasis on the
unconscious. Today, it is generally accepted in clinical psychology and
psychiatry that certain emotions and motives are so abhorrent or
upsetting that we may suppress or repress these scary, disgusting,
embarrassing feelings into our unconscious. Examples: murderous
impulses, wanting every whim cared for like a baby, fear of being
rejected or unloved, resentment of rivals, sexual thoughts and urges,
etc. But, once repressed into the unconscious, these feelings are not
dormant. These mean, nasty, crude urges and feelings (good feelings
don't need to be repressed) are, according to Freud, continually trying
to express themselves some way. 
Many therapists believe that unconsciously repressed emotions
cause a variety of major problems: neurotic and psychotic behaviors,
interpersonal conflicts (see games and scripts in chapter 9),
psychosomatic disorders (stomach trouble, headaches, hypertension,
tiredness), defense mechanisms (chapters 5 and 15), distorted
thinking (chapter 14), and many other unhealthy consequences.
Perceptions can be distorted: if as a child you saw your father as cold,
critical and unloving, you may throughout life expect male teachers or
work supervisors to be that way too. Similarly, certain recent emotions
may be so threatening that they get expressed indirectly, i.e.
displaced from one person to another, such as anger from the boss to
the spouse, from a spouse to a child, or from a parent to a little
brother, etc. And a conscious emotion may be a substitute for an
unconscious one, e.g. one may cry instead of showing anger, laugh
excessively instead of expressing anxiety, feel tired instead of guilt,
etc. We fool ourselves in all of these ways. 
Some therapies hope to change the inner workings of the client,
not just the behavior or the interpersonal relationships. There are two
basic approaches to changing the inner person: 
Freud and several of his followers believed patients need to
uncover the unconscious--to gain insight into deeply hidden
experiences, conflicts and urges, mostly from childhood. As a
byproduct of gaining insight, patients often uncover repressed
feelings which they pour out along with the memories,
cleansing themselves of these pent up emotions and the
associated guilt. This experience in therapy was sometimes a
vivid re-living of some traumatic event, called an abreaction.
This "exorcising" of the forbidden memories and emotions was
called catharsis. Many of the neo-Freudians take this approach.
Therapy is probably better than self-help at uncovering
unconscious material, but there are several self-analysis
methods available in chapter 15. 
A variety of other therapies focus on changing the inner person
by concentrating more on becoming more aware and
expressive of feelings, rather than on understanding the origin
of one's hang-ups. These therapies concentrate on the release
of pent up emotions for mental health. They include Client-
centered (Carl Rogers), Gestalt (Fritz Perls), body-centered
therapies by Wilhelm Reich and Alexander Lowen, Primal
Scream (Arthur Janov), Re-evaluation (Harvey Jackins),
Feeling-Expressive (Pierce & DuBrin) and others. These
therapies view feelings as being the core of our lives or, at
least, the repression of feelings is the crux of many problems.
Thus, feelings are valuable and need to be expressed. Emotions
represent tendencies to act and learning to express feelings
makes us more alive--more sensitive and responsive, more free
to know our true selves, and more free to act on our needs
(Pierce, Nichols, & DuBrin, 1983). In contrast to
Psychoanalysis, this kind of "expressive" therapy uses
"catharsis" to enable the patient to handle strong emotions or
to learn to freely express more and more emotions, not get rid
of feelings. The next self-help method can serve both of these
Some people become overwhelmed by their emotions; others hold
in their feelings and don't even know they are there. Some need to
reduce the strength of their emotions; they need to "discharge" or
release or vent the emotions so they can get the feelings under
control. The classic examples are the crushed, jilted lover, and the
person in a rage. Other people are over-controlled and need help in
accepting and expressing their feelings. Examples here are "thinkers"--
intellectualizers or obsessive-compulsives who are so busy thinking,
acting, and analyzing they don't feel--or macho men who are too
tough to be afraid and cry. They need self-help methods for internally
experiencing more feelings, for understanding and appreciating their
emotions, and for appropriately disclosing or sharing their feelings with
others. It is probably easy for you to tell if you tend to be an
"expresser" or a "repressor." Then, it will probably be clear how you
can use the following techniques for your purposes. 
If humans ever came to accept all their (and everyone's) thoughts
and feelings as natural, normal, and harmless (only actions hurt), then
perhaps we wouldn't have to repress any emotions. You could accept
all your emotions and be aware of all your motives (but not act on all
of them). There would be no sneaky tricks, no self-cons, no freaky
urges by your unconscious. But that seems a long way off. 
Catharsis…venting…discharging…expressing emotions
Holding in our feelings causes mental and physical stress. And,
stress can be very destructive. Often suppressing and hiding an
"awful" thought actually results in uncontrollable obsessions about the
very thing we are trying to hide. Sharing our secrets often provides
relief. On the other hand, letting vile feelings spew out all over others
is surely harmful too. Moreover, our own intense emotions can be very
frightening to others and to us, so we often avoid dealing with them or
pretend we don't feel so strongly and, thus, problems don't get
resolved. For a variety of reasons, it can be helpful to learn we can
control and reduce the strength of suppressed or repressed emotions.
Methods for uncovering, venting, and reducing emotions are included
in this method because once you accumulate intense emotions, then
you may need to discharge those strong feelings harmlessly. 
For some of us, expressing feelings is hard but we can learn to
emote (feel our emotions) by encouraging ourselves to practice doing
so, by gradually giving up our inhibitions or fears, and by finding out
that it feels good to "let go" and to feel strongly. If you need additional
encouragement try attending a self-help group, a 12-step program, or
It will become clear to you that the private venting or catharsis
process described in this method is different from "telling your own
story" in a therapeutic group. "Telling your story" is usually more
consciously controlled than a catharsis, but a sterile, "clinical"
description of some troublesome experience will not yield many, if any,
benefits. You need to let go of your feelings, i.e. your heartfelt
emotions must be expressed openly, not just described in well
measured words. Also, to be therapeutic, your disclosure must be
received by accepting, not critical people. Under therapeutic
circumstances, there is growing scientific evidence that sharing your
feelings and problems by talking or writing is helpful and healthy.
Likewise, keeping traumas a secret is unhealthy (Pennebaker, 1995).
This method describes a process that can be used when all alone. 
Venting or discharging emotions involves vigorously expressing the
emotion--fear, sadness, anger, dependency--so completely you feel
"drained." Then, the strength of the emotion is markedly reduced or
eliminated. Do this in a private place because strong emotions often
offend and upset others. Expressing your emotions fully may be hard
even when alone; this may be true for persons already expert at
wailing or raging with people. 
A warning: Many professionals doubt the effectiveness of these
processes to "clean out" toxic emotions held inside (see discussion of
outcome research later). Moreover, especially when dealing with a
traumatic experience, such as a horrible crime or accident or a rape or
abuse as a child, there is a risk of being retraumatized by this
procedure. Recently, most therapists, in these cases, prefer "trauma
reconstruction" in which order and completeness of the experience is
gradually restored. That is, the complex, emotional, fragmented, often
distorted experiences and memories associated with the original
trauma are carefully reviewed bit by bit and, in time, brought together
into a coherent, understandable, whole picture of the event(s). In this
way overwhelming emotions are avoided (also see chapter 15 for the
use of writing as a way of coping with traumas). 
To learn it is healthy to express feelings, that it feels good to
get them into awareness so you can deal with them. 
To learn or re-learn (we all knew how to throw a temper
tantrum at age 3) how to fully and honestly express our
feelings, at least to ourselves. You may have lost touch with
your body or your "gut" reactions, i.e. you may inhibit feelings
so well that you have forgotten how to emote fully and
To privately vent unwanted feelings--to get them out of your
system--so that you feel more in control and able to take
constructive, rational action. The most common feelings that
need to be discharged are: anger, frustration, disappointment,
depression, dependency, helplessness, fears, and child-like
To gain some insight into the original causes of your strong
emotions that seem inappropriate responses to the current
situation (this may occur but most insight-producing methods
are described in chapter 15). 
To counteract the belief that we'll only hurt more if we attend
to our feelings or that we'll find out we are really bad. To
realize that we can cope better if we know what's going on
inside us. 
To overcome your own fears of strong or taboo emotions, to
learn that you can tolerate and control these feelings.
(Example: one doesn't immediately seduce a person of the
same sex just as soon as homosexual interests break into
STEP ONE: Becoming more aware of your feelings (if you swallow
your feelings)
If you are inclined to avoid feelings, here are some exercises to
sharpen your awareness of feelings (Pierce, Nichols & DuBrin, 1983).
Skip to step two if you do not need this, i.e. if you feel intensely and
vent your feelings fully, perhaps too freely. 
Find a quiet, private place to talk to yourself about feelings. This
could be sitting in a favorite chair, alone in the woods, or doing
exercise. Talk out loud. When you notice a feeling, stay with it and let
it grow to its full strength. Often we shut off feelings so they won't get
stronger but now let them grow or even exaggerate them. If you feel a
little anxious, say you are terrified and try to feel it. If you are
irritated, say you are really mad, shout, and pretend to hit something.
If you feel bored, feel depressed and look for things you hate to do.
Practice tuning in on your feelings and expressing them. 
All forms of art express feelings. Indeed, many of us are more
emotionally responsive to stories in books, movies, TV, paintings or
music than we are to real life events. We can be touched by an
unlucky character in a song but remain untouched by a classmate or
co-worker who has a misfortune. Make use of your emotional
responses to stories, films, and music for a better understanding of
your emotions. 
Make a list of what situations you respond to emotionally--what TV
stories? What songs? What parts of novels? What art? What situations
or interactions seem to generate what feelings? What common themes
lead to joy? to commitment? to sadness? to anger? to crying? to
loneliness? to self-criticism? to self-satisfaction? All of this helps you
focus on your strongest or favorite feelings and become more aware of
them. It helps you understand your feelings, e.g. suppose you
especially enjoy movies where teenagers defy and outwit police and
other authorities. What does this say about your relationship with
parents or teachers and about your emotions? 
After observing the specific connections between human events in
movies, stories, music, etc. and your emotions, now try to figure out
the factors in your past (and/or in your current situation) that
contribute to these emotional responses. Does the divorce of your
parents make you uncomfortable when a couple fights in a movie?
Does a successful, beautiful older sister make you disinterested in or
resentful of movie stars? Does a smart brother make you avoid hard
classes? These are clear memories, what about less obvious
Take an emotional reaction you have, say joy when someone is
especially thoughtful of others, and go on a fantasy memory trip. Let
your mind wander back to any associations this emotion takes you to.
What kind of childhood events does this emotion remind you of? Talk
out loud about these memories. Don't concern yourself with "Did this
really happen?" or with "Don't be so critical." In fact, if no memories
occur to you, make up what might have happened. This can remind
you of real memories or bring out hidden wishes and fears and feelings
about specific people. Also, you could ask your parents and older
siblings where your emotional reactions, such as fears of authority or a
quick temper, might have come from. The idea is to gain a greater
interest in, awareness of, and understanding of your emotions.
Keeping a diary (see chapter 15) and doing daily ratings that focus on
feelings would be especially helpful. 
Probably the best place to explore feelings is with a friend. It must
be someone you like, trust, and have an agreement with about strict
confidentiality. It should be someone who would choose you as a
sounding board, because the two of you should reverse roles as
needed. Meet in a private place where you can make noise. The person
experiencing his/her feelings should say whatever comes to mind, but
focus on feelings and express them strongly. The idea is: to feel more,
you need to express more. If you feel like hitting something, hit a
pillow. Lie on the floor and scream or cry or grunt if you feel like it. Or,
just talk about your feelings. 
The listener just listens. Being empathic is helpful (see chapter
13). But the crucial thing is to listen with concern, understanding that
the other person needs to express his/her feelings. Avoid giving
reassurance prematurely; don't give advice; don't ask about the
details of the situation (When did this happen?) or the causes (Why
did he/she do that?). If you provide any focus at all, encourage
him/her to express his/her feelings. Remember, the person probably
wants to feel--to re-experience and vent--some emotion, even a very
painful one, because it is so important to them. It feels good to share
feelings. Give them plenty of time. A truly patient listening friend is
not easy to find (that's why we pay psychologists). 
STEP TWO: Learn how to overtly express overly inhibited or
scary emotions
Re-learning to cry. There is a sermon in the Talmud that says that
Adam complained to God about how hard life was after being kicked
out of the Garden of Eden. God responded that he/she had given
Adam and Eve two means of coping with hard times: a day of rest on
the Sabbath and tears. Jewish mourners vent their grief by weeping
Crying is so important that techniques have been developed to re-
learn how. Some people cry every day, not because they are suffering
some great loss but because they feel better afterwards (more
relaxed, fewer headaches, less eye strain). One method is by Luce
(1979): Place one hand on your collarbone, right where your neck
joins your chest. Breathe very shallowly, only as deeply as your hand.
Breathe rapidly and make a whining or sobbing sound, like a baby
crying. Try to get into feeling sad. Think of things that make you feel
very distraught. If necessary imagine something very sad--leaving
your family or friends or loss of a loved one. Let yourself sob until the
need is met. 
The emotionally inhibited (constipated) person has been called
"intellectually honest, but emotionally a liar." One may be unable to
feel angry or unable to act out the anger, or both. First, if you do not
have many angry feelings, list some situations that you get angry or
upset about. Often, these are not close to home but social problems--
senseless bombings, rapes, racial discrimination, a show-off, nuclear
war, etc. Take one of those situations and provide yourself with
directions for imagining it in detail. Here is an example (Ramsay,
1978): "Now start thinking about the war in Vietnam, the women and
children lying wounded and maimed in a hospital after being bombed.
Imagine being able to get one of the generals from the Pentagon and
take him through such a hospital ward. Clench your fists, clench your
teeth, and imagine what you would like to say to him, 'You lousy
bastard, you can sit in an office, completely safe, but look what your
bombing orders have done. Look at these children, some without
limbs, some burned, some blinded!' Imagine showing him around the
ward and...get angry...call him all the names you can think of." Get
mad verbally and physically; hit a pillow; kick a bean bag; shout. If
you can't do these things, see the next suggestion, i.e. (3). 
When you can experience anger to these social situations, the next
step is to learn to get angry about everyday things in your life. Make a
list of irritating situations. Describe some scenes in detail, like the war
scene, and repeat them to yourself over and over and get mad. After
you have learned to detect and internally experience your anger, then
you can start learning to be assertive (see chapter 13). None of these
exercises are ever intended to encourage actual hostility towards
another person. 
Some of us can feel angry but we can't express it, not to another
person or even alone. You may feel too self-conscious to hit a pillow or
scream in your car. You may know you would like to smash in a
person's face, but you can't hit a punching bag. 
You need a friend to give you "anger training." The idea is to
express anger more thoroughly by getting your whole body into it. You
need a coach--your friend. Make believe that your friend has your
towel and you want it back, now! He/she teases you with a real towel
and refuses to give it back. The objective is not to just get the towel,
rather the purpose is to learn how to express strong physical anger
(without hurting anyone). In a loud, gruff voice, demand your towel.
Look him/her in the eye, no smiles. Your friend does two things--
refuses to let you have the towel and coaches you on how to show
anger. Get your whole body into it: arms, shoulders, back, brace your
legs and pull hard, not just a little one handed tug. The friend might
tell you to kick, growl, cuss, frown, and use whatever parts of your
body that are not involved. Don't turn the exercise into a game. It is a
hard, serious task. When you have practiced getting angry for a few
times, you are ready for the next step. 
STEP THREE: Vent the unwanted emotion full force until it is
You may find yourself in two conditions: (1) overwhelmed with
intense emotions and needing to get them under control or (2) boiling
with "bottled up" emotions inside and needing to express these
feelings. The venting methods below work well with both conditions.
Primarily we are talking about anger (frustration) and sadness. You
may find it easier to gradually express stronger and stronger emotions
until you feel safe to totally "let go." 
If angry, find a private place where you can make noise (if
necessary reassure the neighbors everything is okay). Obtain an
object you can hit: a punching bag, a large pillow, a bean bag chair, a
bed, a sofa. Be sure you will not hurt yourself as you hit the object.
Some people prefer to hit with an object rather than their fists, using a
tennis racket to hit a bed works well. 
The idea is to drain out or use up the anger (or other emotion), so
that in the end you are calm and more able to cope. So, go into a
rage. Shout, scream, cry, snarl, growl, cuss, shake your fists, kick,
bite, and above all hit and hit and hit, until you are exhausted--
completely drained of hate. Do it again and again, after you catch your
breath, if necessary to feel the anger has been completely discharged. 
Another approach is to throw a temper tantrum. Lie on your back
and kick the floor or the bed with your feet and hit the floor with your
fists. Shake your head and yell, "No, no, no, hell no! I hate you, you
SOB." Don't stop until you are drained. 
Some people do hard physical work or play a sport, like tennis,
when they are angry. If it works, that's fine. But many of us have to
consciously express our anger while working or playing for it to do any
good. Just hitting balls or smashing bricks with a sledge hammer or
scrubbing a floor doesn't help. If we think of smashing the person's
head we are mad at, as we pulverize bricks or scrub a floor, that might
help. Remember: this is never to encourage violence to another
person, it is to drain us of anger and, thus, prevent violence. 
Other people, often women, aren't as comfortable with physical
aggression as they are with verbal aggression. An alternative is to
launch a vicious verbal attack on a cassette recorder. In a loud,
screaming voice spew out all the hate you can: brutal threats, nasty
name-calling, cussing, dirty words, suspicions, destructive wishes, or
whatever you naturally say to yourself when you are mad (don't try to
cuss if that isn't natural for you). The idea is to verbally aggress more
vigorously and longer than usual, so you are emptied and ready to
handle the situation more rationally. (It will be enlightening to listen to
the recording a day or two later, looking for the irrational ideas
underlying your anger). 
If you are sad, disappointed, or have the "blahs," try crying it out.
Find a quiet, private place. Start remembering everything that has
gone wrong. Let yourself feel deeply disappointed and sad. Cry without
holding back. Moan and breathe heavily; tell yourself how awful it is.
Talk to yourself about how bad you feel, how crushed, how depressed,
how gloomy. Cry until you are cried out. 
A few people release their anger in writing or in humor. Abraham
Lincoln recommended writing down your negative feelings--then
throwing the paper away and in the process reducing your anger. Most
of the time it would be a mistake to show your "poison pen letters" to
anyone, certainly not to the target. On the other hand, I have found it
helpful to write a poem or a note to someone when I was sad. If one is
in the midst of a terrible personal trauma, like the breaking up of a
relationship, it may be helpful to write out a detailed explanation of
what happened--then file the "report" away and forget it. 
Lincoln also used his sense of humor to handle anger, like the time
when a heavy-set lady visitor to the White House sat on his high top
hat, which he had left on a chair, and he said to her, "if you'd just
asked me lady, I could have told you it wouldn't fit." A similar story is
told about Winston Churchill when an irate woman was criticizing him
and concluded, "if you were my husband, I'd poison your tea." Winston
quickly responded, "Lady, if you were my wife, I'd drink it!" 
STEP FOUR: Tell yourself the emotions have been reduced to
manageable size and make plans to cope with the situation
After thoroughly discharging your feelings, shift your attention to
considering reasonable, constructive action you can take (including
forgetting the whole thing). Make specific plans and carry them out
(look up "I" statements, method #4 in chapter 13). Most importantly,
keep in mind that these exercises are to reduce unwanted emotions
and control them in interaction with others. You may rage in private
but remain rational and controlled with others, even with people who
have done you wrong. 
Time involved
If you are emotionally inhibited, it may take several hours and a
few patient friends to become more aware and expressive of your
feelings. If you can freely vent your feelings already, it may take only
30 minutes or an hour to discharge the emotions. Fifteen minutes of
rage is a lot...and tiring. Keep venting (with rests as needed) until you
feel drained. 
Common problems
You may act mad or sad on the surface without feeling intensely in
your gut. If so, this will not help you much; indeed, Zen Buddhists
have criticized Lowen's (1976) Bioenergetics as not being "belly-
centered" enough. The belly is thought to be the "seat of self-
expression." Intense, complete expression is necessary. 
You may not take the task seriously, especially when with a friend.
Joking and playing around is a way to avoid a scary, serious task.
Some people are terrified of their own anger; others fear an
authority's disapproval. Some people are afraid or ashamed to cry. The
idea of losing control is scary. You may want to have a supportive
friend with you and you may want to approach an intense emotion
gradually, i.e. experience some emotion, then relax, feel more
emotion, relax again, express more and more intense anger or
sadness but continue to feel "in control" and, at the same time, "let
Completely out of control, hysterical expression of intense
emotions should be avoided, unless you are supervised by a
professional. Occasionally, a disturbing thought or feeling may occur to
you. Try to accept it (see chapter 15) and assume you are more able
to cope with the feeling when you are aware of it, rather than
unaware. Some people object to expressing emotions by using cuss
words and obscenities. You should use whatever words are naturally
expressive for you. On the other hand, don't let your desire to "be
nice" inhibit your expression (in private) of your true thoughts and
feelings, some of which are hostile (remember 2/3rds of us would wipe
out someone if we could), evil, vulgar, and nasty. 
Effectiveness, advantages, and dangers
We have two sources of data: (1) patients in insight therapy vent
feelings and generally report feeling better, but (2) subjects in
laboratories observe or experience and express aggression and
become more aggressive (Bandura, 1973; Tavris, 1984). Many
therapists also doubt the efficacy of catharsis and abreactions.
Unfortunately, there is little or no research about the effectiveness of
self-induced discharging of emotions, as described in this self-help
method. Tentatively, one might assume that public expressions of
anger or sadness, like aggression or crying, which are reinforced (yield
some payoff) by others, are likely to continue in the future. Private
expressions of feelings, as in this self-help method where the intent is
clearly to reduce the unwanted emotions, could result in decreasing
both internal emotional stress and overt expression. You may want to
try it and see how you respond but use caution. Much more research is
needed. Please note the warning given in the introduction of this
method and read the "Dealing with Trauma" section in chapter 5. 
Remember, anger, fears, and sadness probably grow, if one
obsesses about the situation. In fact, just talking about a highly
emotional problem and expressing your feelings with a friend is not
always helpful. If the focus is on how to stop the unwanted feeling, the
talking may help. And, interestingly enough, talking about other things
(not the upsetting problem) can be helpful. So, anything that distracts
our attention or helps us forget the distressing situation should be
helpful. See if venting your feelings helps you put the troubles aside or
if it just reminds you more of the problem. 
There are possible dangers. The emotional reaction could be
unexpectedly intense. So, having a friend with you, who has plenty of
time and knows what to expect, may be wise. Also, know someone to
call or a crisis hot line or a hospital emergency service if it should
become necessary (not likely). Remember, if your emotions are
intense enough that harm could occur to yourself or others, you should
seek professional help, not just rely on self-help. 
Additional readings
Hart, J., Corriere, R. & Binder, J. (1975). Going sane: An
introduction to feeling therapy. New York: Delta.
Jackins, H. (1965). The human side of human beings. Seattle,
WA: Rational Island Publishers. 
Janov, A. (1972). The primal scream. New York: Dell. 
Lowen, A. (1976). Bioenergetics. Baltimore, MD: Penguin
Converting Emotional Energy
Constructive use of energy
Humans vary greatly in terms of their productivity under stress. As
stress increases, some are super effective; others are incapacitated.
Do you "fall apart" or "get going?" This approach involves developing a
detailed plan, translating it into a daily schedule, and using the
emotional energy to motivate us to do what needs to be done (which
is what the super effective do). 
To get yourself together while under pressure. 
Many negative emotions--fears, embarrassments, inferiority,
disappointments, anger--are a call to action, a signal that things need
to be changed. The emotions are probably intended to motivate us. 
STEP ONE: Avoid a defeatist attitude. Select a way of converting
energy from unwanted emotions into productive drives.
Some people respond to frustration with an "I'll-show-you-
attitude." Such a response can be very productive, if it is competitive
and not hostile. Indeed, many outstanding people started with real
handicaps or imagined weaknesses for which they compensated. Great
runners had injuries to their legs. Body builders were skinny. Excellent
students felt they were inferior. Great speakers stuttered. Some
people work incredibly hard to overcome handicaps; others give up. 
Sometimes resentment can become a motivator. The teacher or
supervisor is critical or overly demanding. You might resolve to be
near perfect. Another student or co-worker is a braggart or show-off.
You might resolve to do better than they have done. If you experience
success and develop some skills that are rewarding, you may become
more invested in achieving even when no one irritates you. 
Motivation in most school and work situations is based on fear, i.e.
fear of being fired, fear of making a low grade, or fear of having a poor
record. Many students say they work harder in college than high
school because they have been warned about college being hard and
because they are afraid of making C's and D's. Such fears can also be
self-generated by setting demanding goals, such as straight A's or all
A's and B's, and emphasizing to yourself the bad consequences of low
A competitive spirit will help. Such an attitude comes from setting
reachable goals for yourself and from giving yourself pep talks when
motivation lags. 
STEP TWO: A carefully planned approach to the problem is more
likely to be facilitated by emotional energy.
Emotions increase the strength of the strongest response
tendencies. Without careful planning, anger might prompt aggression,
fear might lead to running away or procrastination, etc. But, with
careful, detailed planning of your time, you can probably make
constructive, tactful responses stronger (more likely to occur) than
hurtful, self-defeating responses. Then, using emotions to increase
your motivation should benefit everyone. This means planning what to
do each minute, each hour, each day in order to reach your goal.
Example: if you feel inadequate, you need detailed plans for becoming
adequate or even better than average. If you are aiming for all A's,
you must have the self-discipline and motivation to study 30-40 hours
per week beyond going to classes. That is six hours per day for
studying. That means giving up TV, partying, goofing around, time
with friends, etc. It means being considered a social nerd. 
STEP THREE: Use your emotional drive to carry out your plan for
Whenever you become emotional, think of your schedule and the
plan you have for coping, and use the energy to accomplish your
Time involved
Very little time is required, unless the planning is extensive. 
Common problems with the method
Many people become so absorbed in the emotions that they do not
think to use the emotions constructively.
Effectiveness, advantages, and dangers
Obviously, some people are very effective in this process. There is
no known research evaluating the procedure, however. An unlikely but
possible danger is that unwanted emotions, such as anxiety, will be
seen as helpful and, thus, reinforced in the process. If that happens,
anxiety might reoccur with greater frequency. 
Additional Methods for Changing Emotions
Distractions and/or exercise
One of the most common strategies (and more useful) for
controlling an emotion is to avoid paying attention to the feelings and
the situation associated with the unwanted feelings. People resist
temptations in a very simple way: by avoiding thinking about or
attending to the temptations. Anger and depression are reduced by
thinking about something else: read a good book, watch an interesting
movie, etc. Keep in mind, this doesn't "cure" the problem, it just
avoids it. That may be all you need to do. 
Even eating and drinking (college favorites) can help you get out of
a bad mood. Exercise, playing with the kids, doing nice things for
yourself, and trying some self-improvement are all effective mood-
The evidence grows that physical exercise is good for you.
Primitive living conditions and evolution have produced a human body
designed to walk, run, lift, throw, breathe hard, etc, etc. This isn't just
some PE teacher's opinion; sound physiological/medical research at
Duke, Texas A&M and other places concludes: "if you are over-worked,
stressed out and discouraged, take a walk, jog, swim, go rock climbing
or canoeing..." In fact, researchers have found that aerobic exercises
reduce stress better than relaxation techniques (Anshel, 1996). Not
only is exercise recommended for stress but also for depression,
anger, low self-esteem and, in general, for better mental health.
Naturally, it is important for heart and general physical health too. So,
get started! 
That is the rub--getting started. Mentally decide on a specific time
to start--select a convenient time, preferably a time that is almost
always open on your schedule. The idea is to make exercising a
regular habit, something you do at the same time of day at least three
times a week--or better, every day. One of the crucial moments is
starting the first day, i.e. do everything you can to make sure that
moment is carried out...think about it the previous night, set an alarm
if it is in the morning or put reminders around if it is during the day. It
would be best if you got a friend to go with you or to call and remind
you...if nothing else you can make a public commitment to other
people announcing that you will start exercising at this specific time.
Afterwards be sure to tell them you actually started, just like you
planned to do. This is such an important time because most failures to
establish a habit result from never starting or only exercising a few
times and then letting it slide. 
If you can attend carefully to being sure you exercise at the same
time every day for the first two or three weeks, you are well on your
way to creating a good, reliable habit. After a month or two of doing
exercises you like to do at the same time every day, the urge to carry
out the habit becomes stronger and stronger--that is, it is easier and
easier. Indeed, a need to exercise is established and you find yourself
doing really weird things--like jogging at 5:00 or 6:00 in the morning
or going to swim at the YMCA after work at 4:00. There will also be
mental/psychological changes too, such things as feeling better about
your body, some pride in your self-discipline, a little more self-esteem. 
There are lots of exercise books that you can find at Amazon or
Barnes & Noble. Three worth mentioning are Gavin (1991) and Hays
(1999, 2002). The 1999 Hays book was written by a psychologist for
therapists who want to incorporate exercise into the life of their
clients. The author gives suggestions for getting started, for
overcoming inertia, for using exercise to reduce stress, depression,
traumatic reactions, and mental illness. Her 2002 book helps readers
select the most fun and effective activities for their specific symptoms.
Exercise can also increase self-esteem, help you stay fit, and provide a
way to interact. 
Several governmental agencies and universities offer Websites
about exercise. Here is a sample: Healthy People 2010
Change the environment and use reinforcement
Depressed people focus on the negative happenings in their lives;
they focus on immediate outcomes and lose their perspective of the
future. They also blame themselves for failures and set difficult
standards for themselves. They give themselves little praise and
rewards but lots of self-criticism (see methods 1-9 in chapter 6; Rehm,
1981). This creation of depression involves biased self-observation,
negative self-evaluation and self-punishment. Like depression, anxiety
involves an expectation of helplessness and doom. Anger involves
seeing someone else as intentionally causing you pain. Passive-
dependency reflects self-putdowns relative to others. All these
emotions involve a complex interaction between the environment and
our own cognitive processes. 
The environment can change feelings as well as behavior. Some
situations make us happy, other situations stress us. We can change
our environment, getting into a happier situation, or change our
emotional reaction to the environment. Suppose you hate to
study. By reinforcing studying with rewards, self-encouragement, self-
praise, and reduced anxiety about exams and class participation, the
self-helping student will enjoy studying more and more. His/her
reaction to the learning environment becomes more pleasant. An
environment containing reinforcement can change emotions and
Practice, practice, practice
We get better with practice. We feel better with practice
(Leitenberg, et al, 1970). Example: we overcome stage fright by
speaking. We overcome shyness by socializing. We come to like to
study by studying successfully. This is essentially in vivo
desensitization. William James said to feel a certain way, e.g. happy,
act that way. It is called the "as if" technique. Virgil Thomson
recommended practicing some desired trait over and over, at first to
"get over the fear" of doing it, later to really "learn how to do it" well,
and, finally, to "figure out if you like it." 
Pleasant activities help us enjoy ourselves
People plan fun activities to spice up their life. Therapists cheer up
depressed patients by increasing their pleasant activities, especially
being with other people but avoiding dwelling on their problems (see
chapter 6). 
Massage is one of the more relaxing activities two people can do
together. It takes no special skills, only gentleness, affection and time.
Several books are helpful (e.g. Downing, 1972, 1992 ). Relaxing in a
warm bath while reading a good book is another wonderful method.
Field, T., et al, (1992) found that depressed and behavior-disordered
adolescents benefited more from 10-minute massages each day for
five days than from relaxing videotapes. It may be that relaxation and
touching together are especially soothing. 
There are several mood-altering drugs: tobacco, alcohol,
marijuana, tranquilizers, anti-depressive medicine, cocaine, mood-
elevators, speed, etc. There is always some "new" illegal drug, e.g.
ecstasy and LSD (Adler, 1985). Drugs--prescribed and street--are
used in enormous quantities in our culture, and probably to some
extent by more than half of the adult population. I haven't included
drugs in psychological self-help because they aren't psychological--and
because I have no expertise in that area. Furthermore, while drugs,
legal and illegal, alter our emotions, the drugs do nothing to change
the conditions that cause the unwanted feelings. Marijuana, cocaine,
anti-depressants and speed will lift your depression momentarily but
the drugs will not remove the causes of the depression. Thus, one
might come to depend on drugs to cope with unwanted emotions.
Removing the causes, if possible, would be a better solution. Many
writers have suggested that there are a variety of better alternatives
to the use of mood-altering drugs, e.g. travel, sports, fitness, relaxing,
reading, movies, eating, good conversation, education, friendships,
helping others, a social cause, etc. 
Implosion and Rational-Emotive imagery therapy
Implosion was described in the last section of chapter 5 (method
#7). The method is like flooding (method #6 in this chapter) except
implosion only uses fantasy. You should know about this therapeutic
approach, but it will be difficult for most people to apply implosion to
themselves. For instance, surprising and shocking fantasies are
needed (it is hard to surprise yourself); also, scenes of special
significance to your unconscious are supposedly helpful. For example,
Stampfl treated a man with a fear of driving by describing many scary
driving and accident scenes. Naturally, the man became very
frightened. Then he had the patient imagine driving a sports car down
a highway faster and faster. The big engine roars and surges with
power. The long, shiny hood of the powerful sports car grows longer
and longer. Gradually the hood turns into a huge, throbbing penis,
which crashes into a semi-truck and is completely crushed. A Freudian,
of course, would assume that the fear of driving involves more
fundamental fears, like fears of death and mutilation (castration
anxiety), which also need to be reduced. In implosive treatment, the
idea is to keep on imagining horrifying scenes for hours until the panic
responses diminish; thus, breaking the stimulus (driving)-fear
If a person had a fear of heights, an unconscious fear might be of
death or there might be an unconscious wish for death. A few people
could make up their own terrifying fantasies, but most of us would
need help from a therapist. If you try this method, remember that at
first you become more afraid and only after a few hours of terror do
you start to overcome the fear. So be sure to continue imagining the
horror stories until you have become used to them and are not
responding with intense fear. Then you should be able to confront the
real situation without serious emotional trauma. 
Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavioral therapists use a
technique similar to implosion. First, the worrying client imagines the
awful things that could happen. Example: a person facing divorce
could imagine being alone, missing his/her children, having money
problems, being unable to find another partner, etc. Then, the client
imagines how each of those awful situations could be realistically dealt
with and, thus, gains confidence that he/she can cope with divorce. A
similar approach is taken by Wanderer & Ingram (1991). They explain
the technique to the phobic person and then ask them to describe
his/her most frightening situations and wildest fantasies about the
feared situation. This description is recorded on a 3-minute endless
loop tape and then played by the client over and over for 20 or 30
minutes until the fears subside. Several such scenes are taped and
repeated over and over. Eventually, the person can face the real
situation. You could do implosion therapy this way yourself. 
Gradual toleration
Classic example: giving a small puppy to a child who is afraid of
big dogs. If a person is afraid of approaching beautiful people of the
opposite sex, he/she could start with average-looking persons and
work up. If some activity is unpleasant, e.g. studying physics or
looking at sexual parts, think about doing the activity increasingly
while eating or doing something else enjoyable. 
We have more potential control over many bodily functions than
we realized two decades ago. We can alter our own blood pressure,
heart rate, skin temperature, acid secretion in the stomach, muscle
tension, brain waves, etc. While equipment is not necessary,
biofeedback instruments are the only way of knowing the results with
any certainty. Good equipment is expensive; it is probably not worth
buying but a local Mental Health Center may have equipment you
could borrow. Some clinics specialize in pain, headaches, stress,
burnout, etc. See the annual reader, Biofeedback and Self-control,
published by Aldine-Atherton or Plain Talk About Biofeedback
published by NIMH. 
Obviously, learning better skills for handling stressful situations is
a good way to cope with many emotions. Being assertive overcomes
submissiveness. Describing your anger in "I feel _____ when ____"
statements seems to reduce subsequent aggression and increase
empathy from others (Gaines, Kirwin, & Gentry, 1977). See method
#4 in chapter 13. 
Cognitive approaches
Since many emotions are created by our thoughts and views or
attitudes (see chapters 5, 6, 7 & 8), the reduction of those emotions
depend on cognitive changes (see chapter 14). We can learn to
tolerate unpleasant conditions and to accept not getting what we want.
To be less depressed and hopeless, we can learn to see external but
changeable factors as causing bad events and internal (we're
responsible) and lasting factors as causing our successes. We can also
correct our irrational ideas and errors in logic. Smith (1990) has
described the cognitive-behavioral methods most thoroughly. Also see
the other references below. 
Note: trying to think through what caused us to be depressed or upset doesn't help
relieve the emotions. Also, trying to suppress ("don't think about it") the thoughts and
feelings often doesn't work well either. Mentally you have to get entirely away from the
disturbing circumstances.
Remember: fears can be conquered by watching someone else
overcome the same fear, especially if the person will then help you get
into and deal with the situation (see modeling in method #2 in chapter
Happiness and contentment with one's life is based, in part, on
one's values and expectations and attitudes. For example,
unconditional positive regard for self and others and the tolerant-
accepting attitude of a determinist makes life run smoother (see
method #3 and chapter 14). To love and to be loved is life's greatest
joy. Having a worthwhile mission--a purpose--adds meaning and
satisfaction to life. See chapter 3. 
Paradoxical intentions
Emotions can be changed by doing the opposite of what you want.
If a dirty house really bothers you, re-double your efforts or, the
opposite, try for dirt, i.e. let the house cleaning go for a couple of
weeks. If you are terribly upset by a "B" (since you usually make A's),
you could try to get B's until you no longer considered it terrible. If
you are afraid of rejection, you can keep asking for dates until you find
out it isn't awful to be turned down. If there is some idea or thought
that really upsets you (like someone being homosexual or your partner
flirting with someone), have thoughts about that occurrence until you
are no longer bothered. The process is like flooding (method #6)
where one's attitude changes from "I can't stand that thought" to "OK,
if I'm going to get up tight with that little thought, then I'm going to
make up a fantastically disturbing story this time. I can take it." See
chapter 14. 
Express the emotions you want to have
In 1872, Darwin suggested that free expression of an emotion
intensifies it. Suppression of the outward signs of an emotion reduces
the feelings. Thus, it may be helpful to replace an unwanted emotional
expression with another more desired one: a frown with a smile, a
bowed head with a raised one, down cast eyes with good eye contact,
a slow gait with a quick, peppy walk, a stressed expression with a calm
one, etc. 
Although we have had 120 years to research this notion, we
haven't done much and our knowledge is still not very useful.
Obviously, the constant suppression (denial) of some stressful emotion
may not be easy or healthy. Yet, there is ample evidence that many
(most?) people are not consistent in their expression of their
emotions, i.e. our verbalized feelings don't correspond well with our
physiological state nor with our appearance (facial expression, body
language, voice quality, and so on). Frankly, we're pretty damn dumb
about the consequences of pitting one part of ourselves against
another in order to change how we feel. Conventional wisdom would
say a body in harmony is ideal, but perhaps these parts of ourselves
are controlled by independent parts of our brain and consistency
doesn't matter (and one part can't control another part). It is needed
research and it isn't difficult. You'll just have to try it out yourself. 
Useful General References
(most are not in bibliography)
Averill, J. R. and Nunley, E. P. (1992). Voyages of the heart:
Enriching your emotional life. New York: Free Press.
Greenberger, D. & Padesky, C. A. (1995). Mind over mood: A
cognitive therapy treatment manual for clients. New York:
Harmin, M. (1976). How to get rid of emotions that give you a
pain in the neck. Niles, IL: Argus.
Hyde, M. & Forsyth, E. (1975). Know your feelings. Watts. 
Jonas, G. (1973). Visceral learning: Toward a science of self-
control. New York: Viking Press.
Keen, S. (1992). Inward bound: Exploring the geography of
your emotions. New York: Bantam.
Kinder, M. (1994). Mastering your moods. New York: Simon &
Newberger, H. & Marjorie, L. (1975). Winners and Losers. New
York: Signet. 
Preston, J. (1993). Growing beyond emotional pain. San Luis
Obispo, CA: Impact Publishers. 
Sand, F. (1974). The life wish. New York: Hawthorn. 
Viscott, D. (1976). The language of feelings. New York: Arbor
Wegner, D. and Pennebaker, J. (1993). Handbook of mental
control. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Wood, J. T. (1974). How do you feel? A guide to your emotions.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. 
References cited in this chapter are listed in the Bibliography (see
link on the book title page). Please note that references are on pages
according to the first letter of the senior author's last name (see
alphabetical links at the bottom of the main Bibliography page).