Psychological Self-Help

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marry and have children, to have an "empty nest," to be
grandparents, and to die. In each stage, we have things to learn,
opportunities to grab, and problems to handle. 
Table 9.1: Stages of development
Stage of
Life
Relations
Stage name
(needs)
Good vs. Bad
Outcomes
Infancy 
(Age=0-1)
Mother
(caretaker)
Oral stage (needs
to be held, loved) 
Trust vs Distrust;
Decides others are OK
or not OK. 
Early
Childhood
(Age=1-3)
Family
Anal stage (needs
physical contact,
play)
Confidence vs self-
doubt; Decides I'm OK
or not OK.
Play age 
(Age=3-6)
Family, play
group
Phallic stage
(needs
relationship with
parents)
Takes initiative vs guilt
& self-doubt. Develops
life "script.". Sees a
purpose in life--or
doesn't
School age 
(Age=6-12)
Family, friends 
Latency stage
(needs to act like
a boy/girl)
Develops industry vs
shame; Enjoys work or
resists work (scared)
Adolescence 
(Age=12-
18)
Friends,
opposite sex
Genital stage
(needs
boy/girlfriend)
Knows who he/she is vs
feels confused; Relates
well or poorly.
Leaving
family
(Age=18-
22)
Friends, lovers
Identity vs
lostness (needs
career & lover) 
Defines who he/she is.
Tests one's abilities.
Entering
adult world
(Age=23-
29)
Mate or Lover,
friends.
Love vs aloneness
(needs to master
world)
Establishes "home" and
own life-style or
remains lost. Shifts
dependency to partner.
May find mentor at
work.
Settling
down
(Age=30-
37)
Mate, children,
peers
Productivity vs
self-centeredness.
New questions and
crises arise: Why can't
things be better?
Grows, advances or
stays at low level. Is
this all I can expect
from life? Why am I
oppressed?
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