Psychological Self-Help

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them. There are unpleasant jobs that need to be done--extrinsic
rewards must be used. But, remember, as with hidden talents, you
might have a potentially high intrinsic interest in some activity and
never realize it, unless you are encouraged or encourage yourself to
explore many areas. Example: Many students have had the experience
of coming to love a required course that they thought they would hate.
Many activities are started because of the external rewards (being paid
for it or wanting to be with friends) but continue because we like the
activity. Thus, you may need to initially self-reward some new activity
but gradually reduce the importance of the external pay offs so the
intrinsic satisfaction can grow: "I do it because I like it" or "because
it's morally right." 
Common problems with the method
Our old beliefs and current social milieu are so different from these
positive attitudes about intrinsic satisfaction that it may not be
believable to you that learning, working, paying taxes, sacrificing for
the needy, etc. could be enjoyable. Think about it. 
Effectiveness, advantages and dangers
As we have seen, there is some research about the interaction
between intrinsic motivation and rewards. But there is hardly any
study of producing and utilizing an increase in intrinsic satisfaction as a
self-help method. Indeed, we know relatively little about how to
increase intrinsic satisfaction. Regrettable! You can look around though
and see the power of intrinsic motivation in action: a voracious reader,
a skilled perfectionistic craftsperson who obviously enjoys his/her
work, the 60-hour-a-week worker who loves his/her job, etc. That's
the advantage. No danger is known. 
Consequence Methods:
Applied after the “Target” Behavior Has Occurred
Reward the desired behavior; positive reinforcement
A response followed promptly by an effective reward
(reinforcement) will be more likely to occur again. This is called the
"law of effect;" it is the basis of operant conditioning and the major
means of changing voluntary behavior. These learning principles can
be viewed from two perspectives: (1) the motivated learner--who
might ask, "What do I have to do to get the rewards I want?" and (2)
the behavior modifier--who asks, "What rewards (or punishment) do I
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