Psychological Self-Help

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now. But suppose someone offered you $8 for the work in 30 days or
$10 in 33 days, i.e. the same 20% profit in 3 days, which would you
take? The 33 day offer, of course. Maybe immediate, no-wait pay offs
are just more satisfying. Maybe "a bird in the hand is worth two in the
bush." Maybe life teaches us that promises may be broken. In any
case, being aware of the appeal and excessive focus on the immediate
pay offs, can help us cope with these situations. Where the immediate
pleasures need to be decreased (#1 and #2), one should avoid the
situations and develop other incompatible responses, like assuming
more of a responsible leadership role at work instead of playing
around. One needs to keep his/her eyes on the big long-range
consequences (see motivation in chapter 14). Where one needs to
tackle unpleasant immediate tasks (#3 and #4), one should change
the environment or oneself so that the necessary immediate behavior
is well rewarded while at the same time focusing on learning to enjoy
dancing and studying. Again, keep the future in mind so you can avoid
major problems and achieve major goals. When we are fully aware of
all the consequences of our actions, we can have more self-control and
more payoffs in the long run. 
Regardless of the outcome of these many debates and questions
about the technical term reinforcement, you can rest assured that the
outcome or consequences of a specific behavior will in some way
influence the occurrence of that behavior in the future. Providing a
material reward isn't always the best thing to do. But, assuring that
genuine satisfaction follows the desired behavior will enhance your
learning and/or your motivation. 
As we conclude our discussion of learning, it must be made clear
that (1) learning processes are quite complicated, but there is a great
deal of useful knowledge available to us in this area, (2) theories often
fail to explain or predict real life behavior, and the early theorists
neglected many crucial causes of our behavior, and (3) learning
theories and experimental researchers have seldom developed helpful
treatment or self-help methods. Hundreds of therapy and self-help
procedures already exist; they were mostly invented by suffering
people and creative practitioners. However, research and theories are
important for knowing with greater certainty which methods work, how
well they work, and why. That's why researchers should help much
more in the process of "giving psychology away." 
How to Get Motivated
Humans are motivated by many things--psychological needs,
physiological drives, survival, urges, emotions, hurts, impulses, fears,
threats, rewards (money, friendship, status...), possessions, wishes,
intentions, values, mastery, freedom, intrinsic satisfaction, self-
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