Psychological Self-Help

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the world could have a TV and a response system via cable. Debates
could be televised in all languages so that everyone learns the pros
and cons of alternative solutions to world-wide problems, such as
hunger, education, health care, mental illness, threats to peace,
religious conflicts, etc. Then everyone could have a vote. That is the
democratic ideal--one person one vote. But the United States and
other advantaged countries would probably fight bitterly against such
"democratic" decisions if those decisions reduced our power and
wealth. Likewise, every corporation could become democratic, but the
executives will not willingly give up their power, status, and $75,000-
$200,000 or more incomes. Politicians will not give up their power in
Congress even though voters could decide where their tax money goes
(just like the United Fund). Students could decide how and what they
should learn, but schools and teachers won't willingly give up that role.
If subordinates and slaves want control over their lives, they will have
to become knowledgeable and responsible, and demand self-control.
Democracy-via-interactive-TV is a new possibility. Now we have the
means. No one knows what the results will be, perhaps that is why we
are moving so slowly. 
The power of a tyrant is given by the oppressed.
-Frederick Douglass
Chapter 9 discusses the chauvinism that exists in the work place
and relationships. The more power one person has over another or the
more superior he/she feels, the more aggressive, threatening, and
inconsiderate he/she tends to be with the subordinate. This is called
the "Iron Law of Power" (Kipnis & Schmidt, 1985; see next method).
Chapter 7 deals with aggression, chapter 8 with submission. This
chapter provides many useful skills for leaders: listening, empathy,
assertiveness, communication skills, decision-making, negotiating
skills, time management, and others. 
Kelley (1992) has an effective antidote against assuming the
leader is the most important factor in any success. He contends that
only 20% of a group's success is due to the leader. The remaining
80% of success is attributable to good followers--not blind slaves but
constructively independent, intelligent, knowledgeable, self-reliant
followers or team members. It's important to see the whole picture
and not assume that the "leader" runs the whole show. We must let
good followers play their important role. 
The idea of the mean boss bellowing orders to quivering underlings
should be archaic by now. Instead of a totally democratic decision-
making system, the current idea is for the leader to pull the more
essential and effective people into a creative, congenial, problem-
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