help books available, although the AA approach was considered highly
religious and almost "cultish" by many. (AA still helps far more than
any other single method.) Psychologists also approve of approaches
very critical of AA, such as The Truth about Addiction and Recovery
(1991) by Stanton Peele & Archie Brodsky, When AA Doesn't Work for
You: Rational Steps to Quitting Alcohol (1992) by Albert Ellis &
Emmett Velton, and Alcohol: How to Give It Up and Be Glad You Did
(1994) by Philip Tate.
For personal help and treatment, call your local Drug and Alcohol
Abuse Treatment Center or seek individual therapy (see white and
Yellow Pages). Remember: if addicted, you may need detox first, then
treatment. For referrals to 12-step programs, call Alcoholics
Anonymous (212-647-1680). For general information, local treatment
programs, and referral to AA call the Nat. Inst. on Drug Abuse and
Alcoholism (800-662-HELP or 800-622-2255 or 301-468-2600). Social
support clearly helps prevent relapse. However, even if you are in AA,
it is important to think in terms of going beyond abstinence into
learning better self-esteem, control of emotions, ways of thinking,
interpersonal skills, and new areas of interest (O., 1998).
Spouses and children of alcoholics should know about Al-Anon and
Alateen (http://www.al-anon-alateen.org/) which help relatives of
alcoholics (also see White or Yellow Pages for local numbers). Children
of alcoholics should also know about NACoA (http://www.nacoa.org).
For parents of alcoholics, see Our Children are Alcoholics, from
Islewest Publishing (800-557-9867). There are many kinds of
reactions to living in an addictive family; thus, in addition to behavioral
approaches, there are personal growth and insight approaches (see
Black, 1987; Bradshaw, 1988, 1989; Gravitz & Bowen, 1986; Woititz,
1983). Professional psychologists consider Claudia Black's (1981) It
Will Never Happen to Me to be the best self-help book for children and
spouses of alcoholics (Santrock, Minnett, & Campbell, 1994).
Obviously, there is an enormous amount of information and helpful
resources for dealing with addictions and potential addictions.
Lack of Assertiveness is discussed in detail in chapters 8 and 13
(Alberti & Emmons, 1986).
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD or ADHD) is,
according to a leader in this specialty, Russell Barkley (1997), not
intentionally defiant inattentiveness but rather a genetic, biologically
determined (1) lack of a sense of time, (2) lack of problem-solving
ability, and (3) the inability to use information to achieve purposeful
goals, e.g. to control their own emotions or to stay on task when a
more interesting option appears. According to this theory, ADHD
sufferers are unable to anticipate future consequences or pitfalls, as
most of us do, so they stumble along from one frustration to another.
Their behavior often looks to others to be restless, spacey,