Psychological Self-Help

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though miserable. Occasionally, he/she is traumatized ("If I can't be
perfect, I won't do anything but be upset"). 
Getting in touch with the interactions among these inner
characters is designed to shed light on the purposes and intentions of
each character. Each is trying to help us: to get us motivated (Nag), to
get things done right (Critic), to get some peace (Child). After getting
to know these parts well (listen carefully to the internal voices for a
week or so), the idea is to learn (several more weeks) to use each part
so we can be rational in our planning, highly motivated to achieve our
values, and still able to enjoy our life. Examples: Orders ("You
must...") are turned into "I want to accomplish (some goal) in this
way..." Attacks ("You are so stupid") are converted into helpful
suggestions and an urge to be original or creative. Your frightened
child is cuddled and protected and reassured by your "adult" who can
see the world more realistically (see chapter 15). Make friends with
each part, name them, visualize them, value them, help them help
you, and interact with them. White is a therapist but the students do
the fantasies on their own. You could too, if this approach appeals to
you. 
Sometimes, you need to go deeper than time management, self
talk, and rewards. White's use of fantasy is a good illustration of a
different kind of self-help method. It is designed to give us insight into
our internal dynamics, emotions, cognitions, and unconscious factors.
Even with insight, you will probably need a To-Be-Done List, a daily
schedule, and a system of rewards until the intrinsic satisfaction in the
work is a sufficient motivator. Recent publications are Bruno (1997),
who has several small books about self-help, and Woodring (1994). 
Finally, brief mention should be made of books that address the
educational process and the increasing of students' incentive to learn
and confidence in their learning ability. A textbook by Bandura (1997)
presents his theories and research about self-efficacy ("I can do it")
followed by many suggestions for changes in education, business, and
health care. Other psychologists have specialized in helping students
overcome failure (Covington & Teel, 1996) and in developing
confident, self-regulated learners (Zimmerman, Bonner & Kovach,
1996). These are mostly classroom strategies for teachers. 
Planning Behavioral Changes
Develop a treatment plan for changing behavior
In chapter 2 the stages involved in making a change in your
personal life are described: (1) not thinking about changing, (2)
starting to think about possibly changing, (3) preparing to change, (4)
taking some action, and (5) maintaining the changes made. Some
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