Psychological Self-Help

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choices). Make new plans, different intentions (see
chapter 3 and reframing in chapter 15). 
B. Methods used concurrent with or during the target
8. Observe and record frequency or intensity of target
behavior. Self-observation, goal-setting (one small step
at a time), and self-evaluation. 
9. Observe and record antecedents and consequences of
target behavior for a "behavioral analysis." 
10. Disrupt unwanted habit. Distractions, delays,
thought stopping. 
11. Substitute a new response (see #2 above). Azrin's
habit-stopping method. 
12. Satiate old unwanted response; paradoxical
intention. Negative practice. Flooding, venting. 
13. Challenge attitudes of helplessness, low self-
concept, self-criticalness, and resistance to change. Stop
trying too hard, let yourself go full speed, without
constant criticism (Gallwey, 1974). 
14. Develop positive expectations of change. "Self-
efficacy" and "self-fulfilling prophecy." 
15. Increase intrinsic satisfaction; focus on positive
aspects of task. Focus on your own improvement, not on
how you are doing compared to others. 
C. Methods of changing behavior that follow the target
16. Positive reinforcement: Write a contract for
rewarding the desired behavior, at first use immediate
and continuous reinforcement, then reduce to
intermittent, then to naturally occurring payoffs.
Gradually shape your behavior. 
17. Negative reinforcement, acting in a way that
removes an unpleasant stimulus. 
18. Self-punishment, providing something unpleasant or
removing something pleasant (time out). Correction or
overcorrection involves an agreement to make up for
breaking the rules in your self-improvement plan.
Aversive conditioning. 
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