everything is so intertwined. Sorry, but that's real life... and you need
to know about all of it.
Remember originally I said the five parts were to help you
understand your problem. Now, it sounds like I'm saying the five parts
help you fix the problem. That's right. This five-part analysis helps
both ways. It is especially helps you find usable self-help methods.
Here is how. Most self-help methods (and therapy methods) have an
influence primarily on only one of the five parts of a problem, not all
five. Thus, there is a highly useful relationship between diagnosis (a
description of a part of the problem) and treatment methods to use.
Table 2.3 will help you see this relationship and find the chapters
telling you in detail how to change each part. At this point, you should
be beginning to get the basic idea of how you could develop a
comprehensive and fairly sophisticated treatment plan.
Table 2.3: Analysis of Problem into Parts and Possible Solutions
Parts of any problem
Psychological self-help methods
1. Behavior (simple
thoughts) (What behavior or
habitual thoughts do I want
Self-reinforcement, self-punishment change of
environment, break the chain early, extinction,
thought control, covert sensitization, self-
--fears and anxiety
--sadness & self-criticism
--anger & prejudice
--dependency & passivity
(What unwanted feelings
Relaxation, self-desensitization, venting
feelings, exposure to harmless fears, stress
inoculation, meditation, constructive use of
3. Skills (Lacking)
(What skills do I need?)
Problem-solving training, social skills via
practice in groups and role playing,
assertiveness training, constructively handling
anger, decision making, study skills, leadership
skills, organization and scheduling skills.
4. Mental processes
(Which views and values
harm--and which help?)
Questioning irrational ideas, correcting
expectations, determinism, building self-
esteem, paradoxical intention, increasing
motivation, values clarifications, gaining hope,
developing a philosophy of life, learning to think
straight, helpful attitudes, self-hypnosis.
5. Unconscious motives
(What needs and defenses
cause me trouble? What
conscious life plan can
replace my unconscious life
Self-awareness exercises, transactional analysis,
psychological reading, focusing, dream analysis,
self-understanding by writing an autobiography,
feedback from tests, friends, and groups, and
learning to accept oneself.